(34.204.186.91) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/19 13:57
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:姚丞恩
研究生(外文):Yao, Chengen
論文名稱:市面餐飲業油炸油之總極性化合物含量及其危害風險之研究
論文名稱(外文):Investigation of The Total Polar Compounds and Their Hazards and Risk in The Frying Oils From Restaurants and Vendors in Taiwan
指導教授:郭孟怡郭孟怡引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuo Mengi
口試委員:邵貽沅鄭維智
口試日期:2012-07-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:市場調查油炸油總極性物質風險分析
外文關鍵詞:market surveyfrying oiltotal polar compoundsrisk assessment
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:1229
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:43
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
油炸為餐飲業烹煮食品常用的方式,油炸過程中生成大量的總極性化合物(total polar compounds, TPC)易危害人體健康。然而,尚未有研究調查台灣餐飲業用油情形以及自主管理方式,且依據風險評估步驟分析油炸油中TPC之危害風險,做為制定管理標準之基礎是有其必要性。本研究目的為調查台灣不同地區餐飲業者用油情形及TPC含量,並且分析其危害風險。抽驗台北市、新北市、台中市、台南市及高雄市餐飲業油炸食品之油炸油,現場使用快速檢測儀測量TPC含量及取樣油炸油100 mL 並填寫問卷。另外利用管柱層析法分析油樣TPC含量。危害風險分析方面,確認油炸油中是否有危害性的毒性物質,收集科學文獻以進行危害辨識。進一步分析台灣國民營養健康調查資料,了解國民每日攝取油炸油食物量的多寡以進行暴露評估。再評估不同危害物質於不同的劑量下對人體危害程度之劑量反應,進行危害特性描述。本次抽驗餐飲業之油炸油合格率達99%,抽驗店家類型為便當業、美食街、速食業、餐廳及攤販。大多數店家使用耐炸油及大豆油做為油炸油,且使用油炸機進行油炸。便當業和攤販多數店家以油炸時間做為換油依據,其次以油炸油顏色;而速食業及部分美食街和餐廳會使用專用儀器及酸價試紙做為換油依據。快速檢測儀檢測之TPC含量較管柱分析高。油炸油經高溫加熱產生較多的雙聚物和寡聚物,會導致腹瀉及生長遲緩,環狀單體會損害肝腎功能對人體健康影響較大。大部分研究顯示餵食大鼠15%的油炸油飼料,其中含有約20%的TPC才會對大鼠造成傷害。依據本研究抽驗結果可計算出各類油炸食品中TPC濃度,進一步計算台灣國民攝食油炸油中TPC之每人平均每日攝食劑量(The average daily dose, ADD),以0-12歲的兒童ADD最高。政府應定期監測餐飲業者油炸油TPC含量,輔導其建立油炸油自主管理之標準作業程序,以有效提升台灣油炸食品之品質及衛生安全,維護國民健康。
Frying is one of the universal cooking methods used in restaurants and vendors. A lot of total polar compounds (TPC) generates during frying and might harm the human health. However, researches on the investigation of frying condition and self-management of restaurants and vendors are not found. Evaluation the hazard of TPC in frying oil based on the risk assessment steps for establishing the operation standards is necessary. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frying condition of restaurants and vendors and the TPC in frying oil, and to analyze the hazard and risk of TPC. The spot check of the quality of frying oil from restaurants and vendors at northern, central and southern areas of Taiwan was performed. The TPC in frying oil was analyzed by rapid monitor immediately and 100 mL of frying oil was sampled, and then the questionnaire was answered by the cook or manager. Besides, the official column chromatography method was used for determination the TPC in frying oil. For the risk assessment, the harmfulness compounds in frying oil were identified first by reviewing scientific literatures. The amount of frying food intake by a person per-day was assessed by searching the information of National and Health Survey in Taiwan. The dose-response of human to the hazards in frying oil was then be characterized. The qualified rate of frying oil from Taiwan restaurants in this inspection was 99%. The inspected stores included restaurants, vendors, food courts, box meals, and fast food restaurants. Most of the stores chose palm oil mix and soybean oil as frying oil, and used the frying machine for food frying. Box-meals and vendors replaced the frying oil based on frying time and oil color, but fast food restaurants were based on the TPC and acid values in frying oil. The TPC tested by rapid testing instrument was higher than that tested by official method. High temperature heating of frying oil generated higher amount of dimers and oligomers which caused diarrhea and reduced growth. Cyclic monomers harmed the function of liver and kidneys and had great impact on human health. Most researches indicated that the rats were harmed after consuming the feed contained 15% frying oil with 20% TPC. The TPC concentration in different fried foods was calculated and used for estimating the average daily dose (ADD). The result showed that children under the age of 0-12 had higher ADD values. Since there is no international recognized toxic parameter of compounds in frying oil, its hazard index of people in Taiwan was not calculated in this study. For public health, Government should regularly inspect the TPC in the frying oil from restaurants, assist the restaurants to establish the standard operation procedure for frying oil management, and improve the frying food quality and safety in Taiwan.
第一章、 前言………………………………………………………………1
第二章、 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………3
一、 食用油之特性……………………………………………………3
(一) 食用油的種類.........................................................................3
(二) 食用油的化學組成.................................................................4
二、 油炸過程食用油的變化…………………………………………8
(一) 油炸過程之化學反應與產物.................................................8
(二) 油炸過程中生成產物之毒性反應.......................................14
三、 評估油炸油品質之方法..............................................................17
(一) 總極性化合物檢測方法.......................................................18
(二) 酸價檢測方法.......................................................................20
四、 風險評估之定義與應用 ………………………………………22
(一) 定義 .....................................................................................22
(二) 應用.......................................................................................25
五、 歷年來市面餐飲業油炸油用油之調查研究..............................26
第三章、 材料與方法..................................................................................40
一、 實驗設計………………………………………………………..40
二、 實驗材料………………………………………………………..41
(一) 實驗樣本………………………………………………......41
(二) 實驗器材…………………………………………………..41
(三) 試藥………………………………………………………..41
三、 試驗方法………………………………………………………...42
(一) 抽樣流程…………………………………………………..42
(二) 檢測油炸油中總極性化合物含量………………………..43
1. 管柱分析法……………………………………………..43
2. 快速檢測法……………………………………………..44
3. 吸油量評估法…………………………………………..44
4. 統計分析………………………………………………..45
(三) 風險評估…………………………………………………..46
第四章、 結果與討論 ................................................................................51
一、 調查市面餐廳及攤販之總極性化合物含量..............................51
(一) 問卷結果...............................................................................50
(二) 抽驗結果...............................................................................55
(三) 標準與快速方法之相關性...................................................56
二、 油炸油中總極性化合物之風險分析..........................................59
(一) 危害辨識結果.......................................................................59
(二) 危害特性描述.......................................................................60
(三) 暴露評估結果.......................................................................63
第五章、 結論..............................................................................................85
第六章、 參考文獻......................................................................................87

李崇和。2009a。如何管理油炸油脂品質。食品資訊。232:38-42。
李崇和。2009b。油炸油的品質最適化維持酸價、總極性化合物快速檢測。食品資訊。234:70-8。
許惠悰。2004。食品安全之風險評估。看守台灣。6:4-7。
洪清霖。1995。台灣主要油炸食品淺鍋多次炸油及其焦化層物之變異原性流布分析。行政院國家科學委員會。研究報告摘要RB8610-1259。
陳沁銘。2004。基隆市餐飲業油炸油品質與作業模式調查。國立台灣海洋大學碩士論文。
陳韋諳。2011。油脂、食材及濾油粉對油炸油品質影響與其標準及快速檢測法之相關性。輔仁大學碩士論文。
施明智。1996。食物學原理。台北市。藝軒圖書出版社。
林秀卿,林彥斌。2010。食物學原理。新北市。新文京開發出版股份有限公司。
蔡文斌,黃伯超。1993。市售部分富含脂質加工食品之各種不同保和脂肪酸含量分析。食品科學。20:178-86。
吳思敬,顏國欽。2000。數種市售食用油脂的理化特性與油煙致突變性。藥物食品分析8(2):133-40.
鄭維智。2009。台灣地區點心食品丙烯醯胺含量及其風險評估暨擬似食品模式系統中丙烯醯胺之形成與消失。台灣大學博士論文。
經濟部標準檢驗局。 2003。 食用油脂檢驗法-酸價之測定。 中國國家標準 CNS3674。
3M. 1999. Checked your oil lately? St. Paul : 3M Food Service Business Co., Ltd.
Andrikopoulos, Boskou, Dedoussis, Chiou, Tzamtzis and Papathanasiou. 2003. Quality assessment of frying oils and fats from 63 restaurants in Athens, Greece. Food Service Technology 3:49-59.
AOCS. 2009. Determination of polar compounds in frying fats. AOCS Official Method Cd 20-91. Illinois, USA: America Oil Chemical’ Society.
Bansal G, Zhou W, Barlow PJ, Joshi PS, Lo HL, Chung YK. 2010a. Review of rapid tests available for measuring the quality changes in frying oils and comparsion with standard methods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 50:503-14.
Bansal G, Zhou W, Barlow PJ, Joshi P, Neo FL, Lo HL. 2010b. Evaluation of commercially available rapid test kits for the determination of oil quality in deep-frying operations. Food Chemistry 121:621-6.
Battino M, Quiles JL, Huertas JR, Ramirez-Tortosa MC, Cassinello M, Manas M, Lopez-Frias M and Mataix J. 2002. Feeding fried oil changes antioxidant and fatty acid pattern of rat and affects rat liver mitochondrial respiratory chain components. Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes 34(2) 127-33.
Berger KG. 2005. Good practice in frying. In: Berger, K. G., editor. The use of palm oil in frying. Malaysian palm oil promotion council. p.24-26.
Billek G. 2000. Health aspects of thermoxidized oils and fats. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 102:587-93.
Blumenthal MM, Stockler JR, Summers PJ. 1985. Alkaline contaminant in used frying oils: A new quick test. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 62:1373.
Chao PM, Chao CY, Lin FJ and Huang CJ. 2001. Oxidized frying oil up-regulates hepatic acyl-CoA oxidase and cytochrome P4504A1genes in pats and activates PPARα. American Society for Nutritional Sciences131:3166-74.
Choe E, Min BD. 2006. Mechanisms and factors for edible oil oxidation. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 5:169-86.
Choe E, Min DB. 2007. Chemistry of deep-fat frying oils. Journal of Food Sciences 72:77-86.
Damodaran S, Parkin K, Fennema OR. 2008. Fennema’s food chemistry. 4th ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
David RO, Gonzalez-Munoz MJ, Benedi J, Bastida S and Sanchez-Muniz FJ. Thermally oxidized palm olein exposure increases triglyceride polymer levels in rat small intestine. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 112:970-6.
Dobson G, Christie WW, Sebedio JL. 1997. Saturated bicyclical fatty acids formed in heat sunflower oils. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 87:137-47.
Eder K, Suelzle A, Skufca P, Brandsch C and Hirche F. 2003. Effects of dietary thermoxidized fats on expression and activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in rats. Lipids 38(1):31-8.
FAO/WHO. 1995. Application of risk analysis to food standards issues. Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. WHO, Geneva. WHO/FUN/FOS/95.3.
Fennema OR. 1996. Food chemistry 3rd. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc. p255-320.
Fritch CW. 1981. Measurements of frying fat deterioration: A brief review. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 58:746-50.
Gabriel HG, Alexander JC and Valli VE. 1976. Biochemical and histological effects of feeding thermally oxidized rapeseed oil and lard to rats. Canadian journal of comparative medicine 41:98-106.
Garibagaoalu M, Zeybek Umit, Erdamar S, Aydin C, Elmacioglu F. 2007. The hepatotoxic effects of deep-fried sunflower oil on rat livers. Advances in Molecular Medicine 3(1):35-40.
Garrido-Polonio C, Garcia-Linares MC, Garcia-Arias MT, Lopez-Varela S, Garcia-Fernandez MC, Terpstra AHM and Sanchez-Muniz FJ. Thermally oxidized sunflower-seed oil increases liver and serum peroxidation and modifies lipoprotein composition in rats. British Journal of Nutrition 92:257-65.
Gertz C. 2000. Chemical and physical parameters as quality indicators of used frying fats. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 102:566-72.
Graziano VJ. 1979. Portable instrument rapidly measures quality of frying fat in food service operations. Food Technology 33:(9) 52-7.
Gotoh N, Watanabe H, Osato R, Inagaki K, Iwasawa A, Wada S. 2006. Novel approach on the risk assessment of oxidized fats and oils for perpectives of food safety and quality. I. Oxidized fats and oils induces neurotoxicity relating pica behavior and hypoactivity. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44:493-8.
Hsiao SY, Wu PJ, Hsu CK, Cheng WC, Feng RL, Tsai SJ. 2011. Investigation on the frying oil sanitation used in food and beverage service business in Taiwan. Ann. Rept. Food Drug Res. 2 : 59-64
Huang CJ, Cheung NS and Lu VR. 1988. Effects of deteriorated frying oil and dietary protein levels on liver microsomal enzymes in rats. Journal American oil chemistry society 65:1796-803.
Isengard HD. 2007. Final report: studies concerning characterization of Ebro instruments.
ISO. 2002. Animal and vegetable fats and oils – determination of content of polar compounds. Geneva: Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization.
Izaki Y, Yoshikawa S and Uchiyama M. 1984. Effect of lngestion of thermally oxidized frying oil on peroxidative criteria in rats. Lipids 19:324-31.
Jimoh FO, Odutuga AA, Obaleye JA. 2007. Changes in oxidized groundnut oil and its effect on Na+/k+-atpase in rats tissues. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6:63-7.
Kochhar SP and Rossell JB. 2001. Frying- improving quality. Woodhead publishing limited.p. 87-105.
Kress-Rogers E, Gillatt PN, Rossell B. 1990. Development and evaluation of a novel sensor for the in situ assessment of frying oil quality. Food Control 1(3):163-78.
Lammerding AM, Fazil A. 2000. Hazard identification and exposure assessment for microbial food risk assessment. International Journal of Food Microbiology 58:147-57.
Leong XF, Salimon J, Mustafa MR and Jaarin K. 2011. Effect of repeatedly heated palm olein on blood pressure regulating enzymes activity and lipid peroxidation in rats. Journal of Medical Sciences Forthcoming 1-15.
Liao, L.M.,Huang, S.Y. and Lu, Y.F. 2005. A survey study on frying oil of restaurants in the Taipei area. Food Service Research Int. 16:60-68
Lopez-Varela S, Sanchez-Muniz FJ, Cuesta C. 1995. Decreased food efficiency ratio, growth retardation and changes in liver fatty acid composition in rats consuming thermally oxidized and polymerized sunflower oil used for frying. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33:181-9.
Manral M, Pandey MC, Jayathilakan K, Radhakrishna K, Bawa AS. 2008. Effect of fish (Catla catla) frying in the quality characteristics of sunflower oil. Food Chemistry 106:634-9.
Marmesat S, Rodrigues E, Velasco J, Dobarganes C. 2007. Quality of used frying fats and oils: comparison of rapid tests based on chemical and physical oil properties. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 42:601-608.
MeltzerJB, Frankel EN, Bessler TR, Perkins EG. 1981. Analysis of thermally abused soybean oils for cyclic monomers. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 58:779-84.
Murano PS. 2003. Understanding Food Science and Technology. Wadsworth, a division Thomson Learning, Inc. p133-40.
National Academy of Science. 1983. Risk assessment in the federal government: management the process. National academy press.
Nawar WW. 1969. Thermal degradation of lipids. A review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 17:18-21.
Nawar WW. 1984. Chemical changes in lipids produced by thermal processing. Journal of Chemical Education 61:299-302.
Niki E, Yoshida Y, Saito Y, Noguchi N. 2005. Lipid peroxidation: Mechanisms, inhibition, and biological effects. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 338:668-76.
Nielsen SS. 2009. Food analysis. Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London.p 117-133.
Osawa CC, Goncalves LAG, Ragazzi S. 2007. Correlation between free fatty acids of vegetable oils evaluated by rapid tests and by the official method. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 20:523-8.
Odutuga AA, Oyewole OI. 2006. Effect of thermo-oxidized soybean oil on growth rate and skeletal muscle enzyme activities in rats. Biokemistri 18:9-13.
Romero A, Cuesta C, Sanchez-Muniz FJ. 2003. Cyclic FA monomers in high-oleic acid sunflower oil and extra virgin olive oil used in repeated frying of fresh potatoes. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 80(5):437-42.
Ross T, Sumner J. 2002. A simple, spreadsheet-based, food safety risk assessment tool. International Journal of Food Microbiology 77:39-53.
Sahin S, Sumnu SG. 2009. Advances in deep fat frying foods. 1st ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Seppanen CM. and Csallany AS. 2002. Formation of 4-Hydroxynonenal, a toxic aldehyde, in soybean oil at frying temperature. Journal American oil chemistry society 10:1033-8.
Simopoulos AP. 1989. Summary of the NATO advanced research workshop on dietary ω3 andω6 fatty acids: biological effects and nutrition essentiality. Journal of Nutrition 521-7.
Simopoulos AP. 2008. The importance of the Omega-6/Omega-3 fatty acids ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic disease. Experimental Biology Medicine 233:674-88.
Shafaeizadeh S, Jamalian J, Owji AA, Azadbakht L, Ramezani R, Karbalaei N, Rajaeifard A and Tabatabai N. 2011. The effect of consuming oxidized oil supplemented with fiber on lipid profiles in rat model. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 16(12)1541:9.
Shuid AN, Chuan LH, Mohamed N, Jaarin K, Fong YS, Soelaiman IN. 2007. Recycled palm oil is better than soy oil in maintaining bone properties in a menopausal syndrome model of ovariectomized rat. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16(3):393-402.
Thompson KM, Graham JD. 1996. Going beyond the single number: using probabilistic risk assessment to improve risk management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 2:1008-34.
Tompkin C, Perkins EG. 2000. Frying performance of low-linolenic acid soybean oil. Journal American oil chemistry society 77:223-9.
Totani N, Satoh K, Tsuji S, Yamaguchi A. 2006. Effects of deteriorated frying oil in wistar rats. Journal of Oleo Science 55:291-7.
Totani N, Ojiri Y. 2007. Thermal deterioration of oil and frying foodstuffs. Journal of Oleo Science 56(10):543-51.
Tseng Y-C, Moreira R, Sun X. 1996. Total frying-use time effects on soybean-oil deterioration and on tortilla chip quality. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 31:287-94.
Xu XQ. 2003. A chromametric method for the rapid assessment of deep frying oil quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83: 1293-6.
Yavari A, Heshmati A, Haghbin S. 2010. Oxidative oil stability index to
evaluate the quality of used frying oils. Journal American oil chemistry society 10:1740-6.
Ziaiifar AM, Achir N, Courtois F, Trezzani I, Trystram G. 2008. Review of mechanisms, conditions, and factors involved in the oil uptake phenomenon during the deep-fat frying process. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 43:1410-23.
Zhao P, Yu KP, Lin CC. 2010. Risk assessment of inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiwanese workers at night markets. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health DOI 10.1007/s00420-010-0551-1.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔