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研究生:李俊賢
研究生(外文):Chun Hsien Lee
論文名稱:使用混合式誤差處理單元之DC-DC降壓轉換控制器
論文名稱(外文):A Buck Conversion Controller Using Hybrid Error Process Unit
指導教授:杜弘隆 博士
指導教授(外文):Steve Hung-Lung Tu, Ph.D.
口試委員:黃進芳 副教授王啟林 副教授
口試日期:2011-07-05
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:45
中文關鍵詞:混合式誤差信號處理單元
外文關鍵詞:Hybrid Error Process Unit
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本論文旨在於使用混合式誤差信號處理單元的DC-DC降壓控制器,其原理主要是以數位化混合式誤差信號處理單元取代傳統的類比轉數位單元(ADC),並縮短電路接上電源後,達到穩定輸出電壓準位之間的暫態反應時間。根據電路回授機制將輸出電壓控制在預期的電壓範圍內;數位化混合式誤差信號處理單元,採用狀態機的方式實現,剛開始時以粗調校正的方式,以較少的處理週期追蹤到目前輸出電壓的誤差信號量,追蹤到誤差信號量之後再以微調校正的方式,持續鎖定目前輸出電壓的誤差信號量,讓輸出電壓維持在穩定的電壓準位。
使用混合式誤差信號處理單元的DC-DC降壓控制器,以中芯半導體(SMIC) 0.35m 互補金屬氧化物製程來實現電路,工作電壓範圍為2.5V~4V,取樣頻率為1MHz,負載電流為0.1A~0.5A,轉換效率約為87%~91%,晶片面積2.7mm2 (1800m × 1500m)。

With the progress of manufacturing process technologies, many different functions are integrated in a portable electronic product, which necessitates the use of power converters to provide different voltage levels;On the other hand, converters are essential for most electrically powered systems which include the prevalent portable equipments. Converters are utilized to provide a lower output voltage from a higher input voltage and required to reduce the voltage variations of the battery. Portable or battery-powered electronics demand ultra-low-power consumption or high power efficiency to prolong the operating time of these battery-operated equipments.
In this thesis, the proposed converter controller with a hybrid error signal processing unit senses voltage variation to reduce response time, and applies the mechanism of feedback-loop theory to control the output voltage at the desired value. Comparing with the conventional analog-to- digital error signal processing unit buck converter, the hybrid error signal processing unit has better load regulation, better line regulation and faster transient response. The proposed buck converter has low power consumption and high power efficiency characteristics, and therefore it is suitable for the application of portable products.
The proposed buck converter controller is fabricated with SMIC 0.35m process and the operation voltage is from 2.5V to 4V, the load current is 0.7A, and the efficiency is 87%~91%.The core area is 2.7mm2.

目 錄
頁次
摘要….……………………………………………………………………...i
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………...ii
誌謝………………………………………………………………………..iii
目錄………………………………………………………………………...iv
表目錄……………………………………………………………………...vi
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………..vii
一、緒論……………………………………………………………………..1
1.1 簡介……………………………………………………………......1
1.2 研究動機與目的………………………………………………......1
1.3 論文架構………………………………………………………......2
二、基本原理………………………………………………………………..3
2.1 穩壓器分類……………………………………………………......3
2.1.1 線性穩壓器………………………………………………........3
2.1.2 切換式穩壓器………………………………………………….....4
2.2 切換式穩壓器功能分類………………………………………......5
2.2.1 降壓型穩壓器………………………………………………….....5
2.2.2 其他類型轉換穩壓器………………………………....………...9
2.3 控制電路分類…………………………………………………......9
2.3.1 電流模式控制電路…………………………………………….....9
2.3.2 電壓模式控制電路…………………………………………......10
2.4 切換式穩壓器主要規格介紹………………………………….....11
2.4.1 暫態響應……………………………………………………......11
2.4.2 轉換效率……………………………………………………......12
三、電路設計與實現……………………………………………………...14
3.1 遲滯比較器介紹……………………………………………….....15
3.2 混合式誤差信號處理單元介紹……………………………….....17
3.3 自我適應誤差信號處理單元電路設計……………………….....26
3.4 比例積分微分補償器介紹………………………....…………...27
3.5 比例積分微分補償電路設計………………………………….....29
3.6 混合式數位脈波寬度調整器………………………………….....32
四、控制電路功能模擬與驗證…………………………………………...35
4.1 MATLAB SIMULINK 驗證整個系統架構……………..…......35
4.2 類比電路設計_遲滯比較器元件…………………………..... .36
4.3 數位電路設計_FPGA驗證控制電路的功能…………..........37
4.4 SOC電路功能模擬………………………………………..….....40
五、結論…………………………………………………………………...45
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………...46
附錄………………………………………………………………………...48

參考文獻
[1] A. V. Peterchev, J. Xiao and S. R. Sanders, “Architecture and IC Implementation of a Digital VRM Controller,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 356-364, Jan. 2003.
[2] J. Xiao, A. Peterchev, J. Zhang and S. R. Sanders, “An Ultra -Low-Power Digitally-Controlled Buck Converter IC for Cellular Phone Applications,” IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), Vol. 1, pp. 383-391, Mar. 2004.
[3] A. V. Peterchev, S. R. Sanders, “Quantization Resolution and Limit Cycling in Digitally Controlled PWM Converters,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Special Issue on Digital Control, Vol. 18, pp. 301-308, Jan. 2003.
[4] A. Prodic, D. Maksimovic and R. Erickson, “Design and Implementation of a Digital PWM Controller for a High-Frequency Switching DC-DC Power Converter,” IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Vol.2, pp. 893-898, Nov. 2001.
[5] L. Benini, A. Bogliolo and G. D. Micheli, “A Survey of Design Techniques for System-Level Dynamic Power Management,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems, Vol. 8 , No. 3 , pp. 299-316, June 2000.
[6] C. Y. Wu and T. Y. Yu, “A High-Efficiency Synchronous CMOS Switching Regulator with PWM/PFM Mode Operation,” Master Thesis, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 2003.
[7] P. J. W. Huang and S. H. -L. Tu, “A Digital PWM Regulator Based on Serial-Error Correcting Mechanism for DC-DC Buck Conversion,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits , Hong Kong, China, pp. 289-292, 2005.
[8] S. H. -L. Tu and C. -T. Lee, “PWM Controller with Multiple-Access Table Look- up for DC-DC Buck Conversion,” in Proc. International Electronics, Circuits and Systems Design Conference, Paris, France, pp. 543-546, 2009.
[9] M. A. Aldajani and A. H. Sayed, “A Stable Adaptive Structure for Delta Modulation with Improved Performance,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, Vol. 4, pp. 2621-2624, 2001.
[10] M. A. Aldajani and A. H. Sayed, “Stability Analysis of an Adaptive Structure for Sigma Delta Modulation,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, Kaslik, Lebanon, Vol. 1, pp. 129-132, 2000.
[11] S. H. -L. Tu, and S. -Y. Lin, “A Novel Adaptive PWM Controller for DC-DC Buck Conversion,” in Proc. IEEE international Conference on Circuits and Systems for Communications, Shanghai, China, pp. 326-329, 2008.
[12] M. M. -H. Chiu, and S. H. -L. Tu, “A Multi-Phase DPWM Based on Fully Table Look-up for High-frequency Power Converters,” in Proc. IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA , Vol. 1, pp. 75-78, 2006
[13] A. Prodic and D. Maksimovic, “Design of Digital PID Regulator Based on Look-Up Table for Control of High-Frequency DC-DC Converters,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Computers in Power Electronics, pp. 2342-2348, 2002.
[14] A. P. Dancy, R. Amirtharajah and A. P. Chandrakasan, “High-Efficiency Multiple-Output DC-DC Conversion for Low-Voltage Systems,” IEEE Trans. VLSI System, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 252-263, June 2000.
[15] Benjamin J. Patella and Aleksandar Prodic, “High Frequency Digital DPWM Controller IC for DC-DC Converters,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 438-446, June 2003.
[16] A. Prodic and D. Maksimovic, “Mixed-Signal Simulation of Digitally Controlled Switching Converters,” in Proc. IEEE Conference of Computers in Power Electronics, pp. 100-105, June 2002.




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