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研究生:羅秀聰
研究生(外文):Hsiu-Tsung, Lo
論文名稱:背景音樂時間填補對於等待時間知覺影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The effect of background music on the perceived waiting time
指導教授:黃榮華黃榮華引用關係施以諾施以諾引用關係
指導教授(外文):Rong-Hwa, HuangYi-Nuo, Shih
口試委員:蔡東亦黃靜蓮
口試委員(外文):Tung-I, TsaiChing-Lien, Huang
口試日期:2011-06-12
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系管理學碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:背景音樂等待時間知覺等待滿意度等待負面情緒
外文關鍵詞:background musicwaiting for time perceptionwaiting satisfactionwaiting for negative emotions
相關次數:
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  • 下載下載:209
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
等待在日常生活中是經常發生情形,但對於服務業者來說,等待會引起客戶不滿情緒,而且等待時間越長,負面情緒更強烈,連帶使得服務滿意度下降。當企業無法實際改善等待情形發生時,如何透過刺激降低主觀上對於等待時間的認知,並影響客戶等待情緒,對於服務業者是重要議題。音樂對人類影響力是悠久的,它可以讓精神舒坦,身心靈上獲得內在平坦,而過去相關文獻也記載,音樂對於心理與生理產生變化具有一定影響,所以本研究主要目的是為了瞭解,在等待過程中透過有無背景音樂時間填補來檢測受測者等待時間知覺、等待滿意度與等待負面情緒,並試圖了解個人對古典音樂及流行音樂熟悉度與偏好度因素影響下,釐清對等待時間知覺、等待滿意度的影響。
本研究是針對銀行客服人員作為研究樣本,以播放古典音樂、流行音樂與無音樂等時間填補,以實驗室的實驗方法,透過問卷調查實驗的對象,並透過聆聽不同背景音樂刺激的效果,對改善等待時間知覺、提升等待滿意度與降低等待負面情緒的影響。
而本研究結果,證實背景音樂時間填補對等待時間知覺與滿意度有顯著影響,而且以流行音樂時間填補效果最好。在等待過程中,往往會引起客戶負面情緒發生,藉由流行音樂播放最能降低負面情緒,最適合當背景音樂使用。另外,本研究進一步針對受測者對於背景音樂熟悉度與偏好度進行探討,其結果並未證實熟悉度能改善等待時間知覺與提升等待滿意度。但對於背景音樂有偏好情形下,對受測者主觀等待時間知覺是有明顯改善,而這改善效果比實際等待時間還短,而且對等待滿意度上也給予較高評價。
客戶是企業獲利來源,當客戶面臨等待發生時,往往會帶來負面情緒發生並高估實際等待時間。本研究結果雖然以電話客服產業為研究對象,但等待在服務業經常發生,建議服務業者當等待發生時,可以藉由流行音樂播放,將有助於改善等待時間知覺與提升等待滿意度,並影響客戶對整體服務評價與企業形象。

Waiting is a typical part of our lives; however, in the service industry, waiting usually leads to negative consumer perception, which compounds even more the longer a customer is being placed on hold. Customer satisfaction thus plunges, severely lowering customer loyalty. When financial institutions are unable to eliminate this problem, how they utilize a spectrum of stimuli to minimize the highly subjective consumer perception and emotion thus becomes critical. Music throughout the history has been proven to be effective, especially when it comes to comforting and making people relaxed. Further, research in the past has also shown that music tunes can influence one’s both physical and emotional conditions. The main purpose of this research is to probe into how music presence, as well as what types of music such as pop or classic music, in fact changes overall consumer perceived waiting time, satisfaction, and emotions, if any.
This research takes a bank’s customer service representatives as the sample size. The experiment takes place with different kinds of music tunes like pop and classic music being played and with questionnaires surveying how consumers perceive their waiting time, satisfaction and emotions vary in different scenarios.
As a result, the experiments have shown clear correlation between music and consumer perceived waiting time and satisfaction; pop music has the most significant positive impact. While waiting, customers actually do feel better listening to pop music as the background music. Thus pop music is the most suitable type of tunes to play to reduce negative consumer emotions and perceptions. Further tests were also conducted to see if familiarity with music tunes, regardless of music types, is closely related to minimizing negative customer perception. The results turn out that no clear relationships existed. Playing the “right” music that sounds nice to consumer reduces their perceived waiting times, that has been shown to be shorter than the actual time waited.
Consumers are the source from which financial institutions gain profit. When consumers have to wait, they usually become less satisfied, thus their emotions make their perceived waiting time to be longer than their actual waiting time. Therefore it is highly recommended to those who are especially in the service industry, to play pop music to consumers who are placed on hold. This at least can alleviate their negative feelings and hopefully increase their satisfaction and loyalty.

目 錄
第 壹 章 緒論 1
第 一 節 問題背景與研究動機 1
第 二 節 研究目的 4
第 三 節 研究範圍與限制 4
第 四 節 研究流程與論文架構 7
第 貳 章 文獻探討 10
第 一 節 等待的內涵 10
第 二 節 等待時間知覺 18
第 三 節 背景音樂相關研究 27
第 參 章 研究方法 33
第 一 節 研究架構與假設 33
第 二 節 研究對象 36
第 三 節 研究方法選擇 36
第 四 節 變數之操作性定義與構面衡量 37
第 五 節 資料整理與分析 42
第 肆 章 資料分析與實驗結果 43
第 一 節 問卷回收描述 43
第 二 節 樣本基本資料分析 44
第 三 節 背景音樂對時間知覺、滿意度與負面情緒影響 46
第 四 節 熟悉度對時間知覺與滿意度影響 52
第 五 節 偏好度對時間知覺與滿意度影響 54
第 伍 章 結論與建議 59
第 一 節 研究結果與討論 59
第 二 節 後續研究建議 61
參考文獻 63
附錄一、背景音樂時間填補對於等待時間知覺問卷調查 74

表 目 錄
表2-1-1  等待過程中情緒反應 16
表2-2-1  時間填補相關文獻整理表 23
表2-2-2  等待時間知覺之原則評估比較表 26
表2-2-3  等待時間知覺衡量方式 27
表2-3-1  情緒特質和音樂變數之間的關連 30
表3-3-1  實驗方法類型說明 37
表3-4-1  背景音樂變數之衡量題項 39
表3-4-2  等待時間知覺變數之衡量題項 40
表3-4-3  等待情緒變數之衡量題項 41
表3-4-4  等待滿意度變數之衡量題項 41
表4-1-1  問卷樣本回收情形 44
表4-2-1  有效樣本分配表 45
表4-3-1  背景音樂對等待時間知覺同質性檢定 46
表4-3-2  背景音樂對等待時間知覺變異數分析描述 47
表4-3-3  背景音樂對等待時間知覺變異數分析摘要表 47
表4-3-4  背景音樂對等待時間知覺事後檢定 48
表4-3-5  背景音樂對等待滿意度同質性檢定 49
表4-3-6 背景音樂對等待滿意度變異數分析描述 49
表4-3-7 背景音樂對等待滿意度變異數分析摘要 50
表4-3-8 背景音樂對等待滿意度事後檢定 50
表4-3-9 背景音樂對等待負面情緒同質性檢定 51
表4-3-10 背景音樂對等待負面情緒變異數分析描述 51
表4-3-11 背景音樂對等待負面情緒變異數分析摘要 52
表4-3-12 背景音樂對等待負面情緒事後檢定 52
表4-4-1 熟悉度對等待時間知覺同質性檢定 53
表4-4-2 熟悉度對等待時間知覺變異數分析摘要 53
表4-4-3 熟悉度對等待滿意度同質性檢定 54
表4-4-4 熟悉度對等待滿意度變異數分析摘要 54
表4-5-1 偏好度對等待時間知覺同質性檢定 55
表4-5-2 偏好度對等待時間知覺變異數分析描述 55
表4-5-3 偏好度對等待時間知覺變異數分析摘要 55
表4-5-4 偏好度對等待時間知覺事後檢定 56
表4-5-5 偏好度對等待滿意度同質性檢定 57
表4-5-6 偏好度對等待滿意度變異數分析描述 57
表4-5-7 偏好度對等待滿意度變異數分析摘要 57
表4-5-8 偏好度對等待滿意度事後檢定 58
表5-1-1 研究結果摘要 59

圖 目 錄
圖1-4-1 研究流程圖 8
圖2-1-1 等待的類型 13
圖2-1-2 事前等待的型式 14
圖3-1-1 研究架構 34


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