(3.235.191.87) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/13 04:44
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:李天豪
研究生(外文):Tien-hao Lee
論文名稱:幻聽管理方案對改善慢性精神分裂症病患幻聽嚴重度、情緒症狀與生活品質成效之探討
論文名稱(外文):Effects of the symptom management program on auditory hallucinations to improve the severity of auditory hallucinations, affective symptoms and the quality of life in chronic schizophrenia patients
指導教授:楊秋月楊秋月引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiu-Yueh Yang
口試委員:張玉坤吳文正
口試委員(外文):Yue-Cune Chang
口試日期:2011-01-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:護理學系碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:護理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:情緒症狀幻聽嚴重度精神分裂症幻聽管理方案生活品質
外文關鍵詞:severity of auditory hallucinationsschizophreniasymptom management program on auditory hallucinationsaffective symptomsquality of life
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:1599
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:115
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究目的為在於探討幻聽管理方案對改善慢性精神分裂症病患幻聽嚴重度、情緒症狀、與生活品質之成效。以北部某精神科專科醫院慢性病房與日間病房規則服藥的精神分裂症病患共18位為收案對象,介入措施以團體方式進行,團體課程內容在教導UCSF團隊所發展的幻聽管理方案給參與的個案,一系列的團體課程為期十週,每週一次,一次60分鐘。研究工具包括五部分:個案基本資料表、幻聽特性問卷(CAHQ)、貝氏憂鬱量表、貝氏焦慮量表、與台灣簡明版世界衛生組織生活品質問卷,進行前後測資料收集。資料收集後以SPSS 17.0統計軟體進行資料處理與分析;描述性統計包含平均數、最小值、最大值、標準差、次數分配、百分比分佈、95%信賴區間,而推論性統計則包含Wald Chi-Square test and Generalized Estimating Equations(GEE)。
研究結果發現:(一)幻聽管理課程介入前兩週,研究對象幻聽嚴重度平均分數為20.20分,課程介入後,自第四週幻聽管理課程起至課程結束後四週,幻聽嚴重度分數相較於課程介入前兩週有顯著下降(p<.05),顯示幻聽管理方案能有效改善幻聽嚴重度;(二)課程介入前兩週平均憂鬱分數為14.56分,屬輕度憂鬱,課程介入後至課程結束,憂鬱分數有下降趨勢,課程結束後四週,憂鬱分數下降至正常範圍,且與介入前呈現顯著差異(p<.05),顯示幻聽管理方案能有效改善憂鬱狀態;(三)課程介入前兩週焦慮平均分數為9.41分,屬輕度焦慮,課程介入後至課程結束,焦慮分數有下降趨勢,課程結束後四週,焦慮分數下降至正常範圍,且與介入前呈現顯著差異(p<.05),顯示幻聽管理方案能有效改善焦慮狀態;(四)課程介入前兩週研究對象平均生活品質分數為83.61分,課程介入後至課程結束後追蹤四週,生活品質分數有略為下降趨勢,但與介入前未呈現顯著差異(p>.05),顯示幻聽管理方案改善生活品質的效果較不明顯。本研究可做為將來關於精神分裂症患者臨床照護之參考。

The purpose of this research is to explore the effects of the symptom management program on auditory hallucinations to improve the severity of auditory hallucinations, affective symptoms and the quality of life of chronic schizophrenia patients.
The subjects of convenience sampling were from 18 schizophrenic patients who have regular medication at two chronic wards and day care of a psychiatric hospital in New Taipei city. Intervention was conducted in group and the content of group program was about Symptom Management Program on Auditory Hallucination, which was devised by the team of symptom management program on auditory hallucination led by Professor Buccheri at University of California, San Francisco. A series of group programs were consisted of 10 weeks. It was conducted once a week and 60 minutes each. The research tool for data collection before and after the test was structured questionnaire including 5 parts: demographic data, Characteristics of Auditory Hallucinations Questionnaire, Beck Depressive Inventory II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and WHOQOL-BREF.
The Statistical Package for the social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows, version 17.0, was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics included average, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, frequency distribution, percentage, and 95% Confidence interval. Inferential Statistics include Wald Chi-Square test, and Generalized Estimating Equations.
The research result found: (1) Two weeks before the intervention of symptom management program on characteristics of auditory hallucinations, the average score of subjects’ severity of auditory hallucinations was 20.20. Both after program and post program four weeks, the subjects who attended the symptom management program experienced significantly decreased overall scores of the characteristics of auditory hallucinations.This shows symptom management program on auditory hallucinations improves the severity of auditory hallucinations. (2) Subjects’ average score of depression which belonged to minor depression was 14.56 two weeks before the program intervened. From beginning of the intervention until the end of it, the score of depression tended to decrease. The results indicated that depressive symptoms were significantly improved at 4-week after the program. This shows auditory hallucination management program improves depressive symptoms effectively. (3) Subjects’ average score of anxiety was 9.41 two weeks before the program which belonged to minor anxiety. The score of anxiety tended to decrease after the program until the end of it. The results indicated that anxiety symptoms were significantly improved at 4-week after the program. This shows symptom management program on auditory hallucinations can improve the status of anxiety effectively. (4) The effect of the program were evaluated at 2-week before the program, end the program and 4-week after the program. Two weeks before the program, subjects’ score of quality of life was 83.61. After program, the score of quality of life slightly decreased but there was no significant difference in the score before the program. This shows symptom management program on auditory hallucinations does not have significant improvement on quality of life. This research can be the reference for clinical nursing on schizophrenic patients.

正文目錄 頁數
論文摘要………………………………………… I
英文摘要………………………………………… III
致謝……………………………………………… VI
第一章 緒論……………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究動機與重要性……………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的………………………………………… 4
第二章 文獻查證………………………………………… 5
第一節 精神分裂症……………………………………… 5
第二節 精神分裂症與幻聽……………………………… 7
第三節 幻聽與情緒症狀、生活品質之關係及其測量… 10
第四節 症狀管理的定義、概念、與應用……………… 25
第五節 介入性研究的考量……………………………… 29
第三章 研究方法………………………………………… 33
第一節 研究設計………………………………………… 33
第二節 研究架構………………………………………… 35
第三節 名詞界定………………………………………… 36
第四節 研究假設………………………………………… 38
第五節 研究對象………………………………………… 39
第六節 研究工具………………………………………… 40
第七節 倫理考量………………………………………… 44
第八節 資料處理與分析………………………………… 45
第四章 研究結果………………………………………… 46
第一節 研究對象基本屬性分佈………………………… 46
第二節 幻聽管理方案對改善慢性精神分裂症病患幻聽嚴重度之成效…………………………………… 53
第三節 幻聽管理方案對改善慢性精神分裂症病患情緒症狀之成效……………………………………… 61
第四節 幻聽管理方案對改善慢性精神分裂症病患生活品質之成效……………………………………… 79
第五章 討論……………………………………………… 88
第一節 慢性精神分裂症併有幻聽之病患基本屬性分佈之分析…………………………………………… 89
第二節 慢性精神分裂症併有幻聽之病患幻聽嚴重度、情緒症狀、與生活品質現況之分析…………… 92
第三節 慢性精神分裂症併有幻聽之病患接受幻聽管理方案對改善幻聽嚴重度成效之討論…………… 96
第四節 慢性精神分裂症併有幻聽之病患接受幻聽管理方案後情緒症狀及生活品質差異之討論……… 97
第六章 結論與建議……………………………………… 100
第一節 結論……………………………………………… 100
第二節 研究限制與建議………………………………… 103
第三節 護理應用………………………………………… 105
參考文獻………………………………………… 107

王凱俊、周元華(2005).精神分裂症‧臨床醫學,55(6),415-425。
江逸萱、楊秋月(2009, Feb).幻聽症狀量表中文版之發展.於2009年中華民國精神衛生護理學會主辦,論文發表會.台南:嘉南療養院。
行政院衛生署(2008).民國96年全民健康保險醫療統計—醫療統計年報.98年10月05日,取自http://www.doh.gov.tw/CHT2006/DisplayStatisticFile.aspx?d=69413&s=1
行政院衛生署(2009).民國97年全民健康保險醫療統計—醫療統計年報.98年12月14日,取自http://www.doh.gov.tw/CHT2006/DisplayStatisticFile.aspx?d=73472&s=1
成和玲、楊美賞(1997)‧門診與社區復健精神分裂病患者生活品質之比較及影響生活品質之因素‧高雄醫學科學雜誌,13(12),748-756。
李美秀、蔡芸芳(2003)‧精神分裂症病患幻聽症狀自我處理技巧之初探研究‧醫護科技學刊,5(1),45-53。
余伍洋、成和玲、龍佛衛、陳明哲、林清華(1995)‧精神病患活品質量表之發展‧公共衛生雜誌,22(1),29-40。
車先蕙、盧孟良、陳錫中、張尚文、李宇宙(2006).中文版貝克焦慮量表之信效度.台灣醫學,10(4),447-454。
姚開屏(2005).台灣簡明版世界衛生組織生活品質問卷之發展及使用手冊.台北:世界衛生組織生活品質問卷台灣版發展小組。
許嘉純、姚開屛、胡海國、熊秉荃(2005).台灣版精神分裂症病人生活品質評量表:信度與效度之研究.台灣精神醫學,19(1),33-45。
陳祐蓉、楊秋月(2009, Feb).探討精神分裂症患者情感症狀與幻聽嚴重度之相關性.於2009年中華民國精神衛生護理學會主辦,論文發表會.台南:嘉南療養院。
楊秋月、江逸萱、陳祐蓉(2009, Feb).幻聽症狀量表中文短版之發展.2009年中華民國精神衛生護理學會第六次護理論文發表會論文集.台北:中華民國精神衛生護理學會。
楊秋月、蕭淑貞、熊秉荃(2007) .精神病患的幻聽評估工具.精神衛生護理雜誌,2(1),35-43.
潘璦琬、許瑋玲(2008).羅序模式檢定貝氏憂鬱量表第二版之建構效度.台灣醫學,12(3),284-291。
鄭致道、胡海國、黃宗正(2002)‧精神分裂症幻聽之內容與特徵‧台灣精神醫學,16(4),311-321。
盧孟良、車先惠、張尚文、沈武典(2002).中文版貝克憂鬱量表第二版之信度和效度.台灣精神醫學,16(4),301-310。
鍾思嘉、龍長風(1984).修訂情境與特質焦慮量表之研究.中國測驗學會測驗年刊,31,27-36。
Allen, P., Freeman, D., McGuire, P., Garety, P., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., et al. (2005). The prediction of hallucinatory predisposition in non-clinical individuals: Examining the contribution of emotion and reasoning. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44(1), 127-132.
American Psychiatric Association(2007).精神疾病診斷準則手冊-DSM Ⅳ-TR(孔繁鐘譯).台北:合記。(原著出版於2000)
an der Heiden, W., Konnecke, R., Maurer, K., Ropeter, D., & Hafner, H. (2005). Depression in the long-term course of schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 255(3), 174-184.
Atalay, F., & Atalay, H. (2006). Gender differences in patients with schizophrenia in terms of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. German Journal of Psychiatry, 9(2), 41-47.
Award, A. G. (1992). Quality of life of schizophrenic patients on medication and implication for new drug trials. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 43(3), 262-265.
Baethge, C., Baldessarini, R. J., Freudenthal, K., Streeruwitz, A., Bauer, M., & Bschor, T. (2005). Hallucinations in bipolar disorder: Characteristics and comparison to unipolar depression and schizophrenia. Bipolar Disorders, 7(2), 136-145.
Baynes, D., Mulholland, C., Cooper, S. J., Montgomery, R. C., MacFlynn, G., Lynch, G., et al. (2000). Depressive symptoms in stable chronic schizophrenia: Prevalence and relationship to psychopathology and treatment. Schizophrenia Research, 45(1), 47-56.
Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4(6), 561-571.
Beck, A.T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R.A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(6), 893-897.
Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., & Brown, G.K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory-Second edition manual. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace.
Bengtsson, A., & Hansson, L. (2001). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of the social network in schizophrenic patients living in the community. Relationship to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical factors and subjective quality of life. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 47(3), 67-77.
Birchwood, M. (2003). Pathways to emotional dysfunction in first-episode psychosis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 182(5), 373-375.
Bow-Thomas, C. C., Velligan, D. I., Miller, A. L., & Olsen, J. (1999). Predicting quality of life from symptomatology in schizophrenia at exacerbation and stabilization. Psychiatry Research, 86(2), 131-142.
Brune, M., Abdel-Hamid, M., Lehmkamper, C., & Sonntag, C. (2007). Mental state attribution, neurocognitive functioning, and psychopathology: What predicts poor social competence in schizophrenia best. Schizophrenia Research, 92(1-3), 151-159.
Buccheri, R., Trygstad, L., & Dowling, G. (2007). Behavioral management of command hallucinations to harm in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 45(9), 46-54.
Buccheri, R., Trygstad, L., Dowling, G., Hopkins, R., White, K., Griffin, J. J., et al. (2004). Long-term effects of teaching behavioral strategies for managing persistent auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 42(1), 18-27.
Buccheri, R., Trygstad, L., Kanas, N., & Dowling, G. (1997). Symptom management of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: Results of 1-year follow up. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 35(12), 20-28.
Buccheri, R., Trygstad, L., Kanas, N., Waldron, B., & Dowling, G. (1996). Auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: Group experience in examining symptom management and behavioral strategies. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 34(2), 12-25.
Buchanan, R. W., & Carpenter, W. T. (2005). Concept of schizophrenia. In B. J. Sagock, & V. A. Sadock (Eds), Kaplan & Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Cattell, R. B., & Scheier, I. H. (1961). The meaning and measurement of neuroticism and anxiety. New York: Ronald Press.
Chang, H. (2005). Dimensions of the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory-II in a university sample. Individual Differences Research, 3(3), 193-199.
Cohen, C. I., Talavera, N., & Hartung, R. (1996). Depression among aging persons with schizophrenia who live in the community. Psychiatric Services, 47(6), 601-607.

De Sousa, A. (2007). Types and contents of hallucinations in schizophrenia. Journal of Pakistan Psychiatric Society, 4(1), 29-32.
Delespaul, P., deVries, M., & van Os, J. (2002). Determinants of occurrence and recovery from hallucinations in daily life. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37(3), 97-104.
Dodd, M., Janson, S., Facione, N., Faucett, J., Froelicher, E. S., Humphreys, J., et al. (2001). Advancing the science of symptom management. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33(5), 668-676.
Eack, S. M., & Newhill, C. E. (2007). Psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33(5), 1225-1237.
Emsley, R. A., Oosthuizen, P. P., Joubert, A. F., Roberts, M. C., & Stein, D. J. (1999). Depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60(11), 747-751.
England, M. (2005). Mediation of the relationship between inner voice experiences and health-related quality of life. Perspective in Psychiatric Care, 41(1), 22-34.
England, M. (2007). Accuracy of nurses’ perceptions of voice hearing and psychiatric symptoms. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 58(2), 130–139.
Frederick, J. A. (2000). Development of an instrument for assessment of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Medical College Georgia, Atlanta.
Gelder, M., & Mayou, R.(2001).精神醫學(陳俊欽、歐麗清、方俊凱、徐堅棋、李郁芬、林嘉發譯).台北市:藝軒。(原著出版於1998)
Hamilton, M. (1959). The assessment of anxiety states by rating. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 32(1), 50-55.
Hofer, A., Baumgartner, S., Edlinger, M., Hummer, M., Kemmler, G., Rettenbacher, M. A., et al. (2005). Patient outcomes in schizophrenia I: Correlates with sociodemographic variables, psychopathology, and side effects. European Psychiatry, 20(5-6), 386-394.
Kanungpairn, T., Sitthimongkol, Y., Wattanapailin, A., & Klainin, P. (2007). Effects of a symptom management program on auditory hallucinations in Thai outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia: A pilot study. Nursing & Health Sciences, 9(1), 34-39.
Kao, Y. C., Liu, Y. P., Chou, M. K., & Cheng, T. H. (2011). Subjective quality of life in patients with chronic schizophrenia: Relationships between psychosocial and clinical characteristics. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52(2), 171-180.
Kilzieh, N., Wood, A. E., Erdmann, J., Raskind, M., & Tapp, A. (2003). Depression in Kraepelinian schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 44(1), 1-6.
Kim, J. H., Ann, J. H., & Kim, M. J. (2011). Relationship between improvements of subjective well-being and depressive symptoms during acute treatment of schizophrenia with atypical antipsychotics. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapentics, 36(2), 172-178.
Kroenke, K., & Mangelsdorff, A. D. (1989). Common symptoms in ambulatory care: Incidence, evaluation, therapy, and outcome. American Journal of Medicine, 86(3), 262-266.
Lehman, A. F. (1983). The well-being of chronic mental patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40(4), 369-373.
Lehman, A. F. (1988). A quality of life interview for the chronically mentally ill. Evaluation and Program Planning, 11(1), 51-62.
Lehman, A., Ward, N., & Linn, L. (1982). Chronic mental patients: The quality of life issue. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 139(10), 1271-1276.
Lung, F. W., Shu, B. C., & Chen, P. F. (2009). Personality and emotional response in schizophrenics with persistent auditory hallucinations. European Psychiatry, 24(7), 470-475.
Lysaker, P. H., & Salyers, M. P. (2007). Anxiety symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Associations with social function, positive and negative symptoms, hope and trauma history. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 116(4), 290-298.
McNiel, D. E., Eisner, J. P., & Binder, R. L. (2000). The relationship between command hallucinations and violence. Psychiatric Services, 51(10), 1288-1292.
Miller, L. J. (1996). Qualitative changes in hallucinations. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(2), 265-267.
Morrison, A. P., & Wells, A. (2003). A comparison of metacognitions in patients with hallucinations, delusions, panic disorder, and non-patient controls. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41(2), 251-256.
Nayani, T. H., & David, A. S. (1996). The auditory hallucination: A phenomenological survey. Psychological Medicine, 26(1), 177-189.
Norman, R., Malla, A., McLean, T., Voruganti, L., Cortese, L., McIntosh, E., et al. (2000). The relationship of symptoms and level of functioning in schizophrenia to general wellbeing and the Quality of Life Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102(4), 303-309.
Oliver, J. P. (1992). The social care directive: Development of a quality of life profile for use in community services for the mentally ill. Social Work & Social Sciences Reviews, 3(1), 5-45.
Oliver, J. P., Huxley, P. J., Bridges, K., & Mohamad, H. (1996). Quality of life and mental health services. London: Routledge.
Oulis, P., Gournellis, R., Konstantakopoulos, G., Matsoukas, T., Michalopoulou, P. G., Soldatos, C., et al. (2007). Clinical dimensions of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 48(4), 337-342.
Orem, D. E. (1991). Nursing: Concepts of practice(4th ed). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Pan, J. J., Chen, B. Y., Teng, H. W., Lu, M. L., & Shen, W. W. (2005). The use of alternative medicine among Taiwanese psychiatric outpatients. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 59(6), 711-716.
Patterson, T. L., Kaplan, R. M., Grant, I., Semple, S. J., Moscona, S., Koch, W. L., et al. (1996). Quality of well-being in late-life psychosis. Psychiatry Research, 63(2-3), 169-181.
Ritsher, J. B., Lucksted, A., Otilingam, P. G., & Grajales, M. (2004). Hearing voices: Explanations and implications. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 27(3), 219–227.
Rogers, P., Watt, A., Gray, N. S., MacCulloch, M., & Gournay, K. (2002). Content of command hallucinations predicts self-harm but not violence in a medium secure unit. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 13(2), 251-262.
Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2007). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/ clinical psychiatry (10th ed., pp. 467-497). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.
Sax, K., Strakowski, S., Keck, P., Jr, Upadhyaya, V., West, S., & McElroy, S. (1996). Relationships among negative, positive, and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and psychotic depression. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 168(1), 68-71.
Shawyer, F., Mackinnon, A., Farhall, J., Sims, E., Blaney, S., Yardley, P., et al. (2008). Acting on harmful command hallucinations in psychotic disorders-- An integrative approach. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(5), 390-398.
Sidani, S., & Braden, C. J. (1998). Evaluating nursing interventions: A theory-driven approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sorofman, B., Tripp-Reimer, T., Lauer, G. M., & Martin, M. E. (1990). Symptom self-care. Holistic Nursing Practice, 4(2), 45-55.
Stanghellini, G., & Cutting, J. (2003). Auditory verbal hallucinations: Breaking the silence of inner dialogue. Psychopathology, 36(3), 120-128.
Steel, C., Garety, P. A., Freeman, D., Craig, E., Kuipers, E., Bebbington, P., et al. (2007). The multidimensional measurement of the positive symptoms of psychosis. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 16(2), 88-96.
The WHOQOL Group (1998). Development of World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological Medicine, 28(3), 551-558.
Trygstad, L., Buccheri, R., Dowling, G., Zind, R., White, K., Griffin, J., J., et al. (2002). Behavioral management of persistent auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: Outcomes from a 10-week course. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 8(3), 84-91.
Tsai, Y. F., & Chen, C. Y. (2006). Self-care symptom management strategies for auditory hallucinations among patients with schizophrenia in Taiwan. Applied Nursing Research 19(4), 191-196.
Tsai, Y. F., & Ku, Y. C. (2005). Self-care symptom management strategies for auditory hallucinations among inpatients with schizophrenia at a Veterans' Hospital in Taiwan. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 19(4), 194-199.
Wassink, T. H., Flaum, M., Nopoulos, P., & Andreasen, N. C. (1999). Prevalence of depressive symptoms early in the course of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(2), 315-316.
Williams, J. B. W. (2001). Standardizing the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale: Past, present, and future. European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, 251(suppl. 2), 6-12.
Xiang, Y. T., Weng, Y. Z., Leung, C. M., Tang, W. K., & Ungvari, G. (2008). Subjective quality of life in outpatients with schizophrenia in Hong Kong and Beijing: Relationship to socio-demographic and clinical factors. Quality of Life Research, 17(1), 27-36.
Yamauchi, K., Aki, H., Tomotake, M., Iga, J. I., Numata, S., Motoki, I., et al. (2008). Predictors of subjective and objective quality of life in outpatients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 62(4), 404-411.
Zisook, S., McAdams, L. A., Kuck, J., Harris, M. J., Bailey, A., Patterson, T. L., et al. (1999). Depressive symptoms in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(11), 1736-1743.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔