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研究生:陳泰良
論文名稱:薑麻油生產品質及其儲藏之穩定性
指導教授:林麗雲林麗雲引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:食品暨應用生物科技所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:180
中文關鍵詞:廣東薑竹薑麻油抗氧化精油香氣成分
外文關鍵詞:Guangdong gingerChu gingergingersesame oilantioxidantessential oilaroma compounds
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中文摘要

薑的學名為Zingiber officinale Roscoe,別名薑母,英文名zingiber (ginger),可做為蔬菜、調味及藥用。本研究以廣東薑(GG)與竹薑(CG)為樣品,取麻油(SO)與加熱後麻油(SOH)當作空白組,薑:麻油=1:4 (w/w)比例添加,製成薑麻油,其組別分為薑萃取物組(GES、CES)、薑粉組(GPS、CPS)、薑粉加薑萃取物加熱組(GEPSH、CEPSH)等六組,觀察其機能性成分、香氣分析、抗氧化分析、儲藏過程中品質之變化及感官品評。廣東薑與竹薑的有機酸以草酸(oxalic acid)及酒石酸(tartaric acid)為主;廣東薑與竹薑薑辣素以6-gingerol及6-shogaol為主;廣東薑與竹薑薑黃素含量,分別2.32 mg/100 g與0.96 mg/100 g;其薑精油香氣成分以倍半萜烯類為主,其中又以zingiberene含量比率最高,廣東薑為20.85%、竹薑為17.55%;薑在水及乙醇溶劑萃取之抗氧化試驗後大部份以乙醇的效果較佳。
在薑麻油方面,薑麻油薑辣素以6-gingerol及6-shogaol為主,以薑粉加薑萃取物加熱組(GEPSH及CEPSH)含量較高;薑黃素以薑粉加薑萃取物加熱組(GEPSH及CEPSH)含量較高;薑麻油的總抗氧化能力、清除DPPH自由基能力、還原力、螯合亞鐵離子的能力以薑粉加薑萃取物加熱組(GEPSH、CEPSH)最佳,其次為薑粉組(GPS、CPS),而薑萃取物組(GES、CES)較差;在薑麻油的儲藏試驗分析結果顯示,POV、TBA在約一個月後皆有顯著上升,AV逐漸上升,游離脂肪酸逐漸下降,所以薑麻油仍具有抗氧化能力使產品的品質維持穩定;芝麻酚會受溫度影響,芝麻油含有0.62 mg/g,薑麻油中含有0.38 mg/g;儲藏期間之變化,在總生菌數方面,GPS與CPS組,在 14天觀察到微生物生長,35天後菌數增加到6.25 Log CFU/g、5.97 Log CFU/g ,其它四組(薑粉加薑萃取物加熱組(GEPSH、CEPSH)、薑萃取物組(GES、CES)均未發現到微生物生長;酸價方面會隨著儲藏的時間而上升,以空白組(SO)最好(1.77 mgKOH/g上升到2.95 mgKOH/g),其次為GES;過氧化價隨著儲藏的時間而下降,以 CEPSH最好 (12.11 meq/kg oil下降到11.07 meq/kg oil);TBA會隨著儲藏的時間而上升,以CEPSH最好分別從(9.70 μmole/g 上升到11.47 μmole/g)。

關鍵字:廣東薑、竹薑、薑、麻油、抗氧化、精油、香氣成分

英文摘要
The scientific name of the ginger is Zingiber officinale Roscoe, another name is mother ginger, general name is zingiber (ginger), it can be used as the vegetables, flavour and pharmaceutial . In this study, Guangdong ginger(GG), Chu ginger(CG) be used as sample, Sesame oil (SO) and heated sesame oil (SOH) as a blank group, the ginger oil is made from the ratio of ginger/sesame=1: 4 (w/w). Respectively, design the 6 groups [ including: ginger powder group(GPS, CPS), ginger extract group (GES, CES), ginger powder and ginger extract group(GEPSH, CEPSH)], then analyze the functional compounds and volatile components, Sensery evaluation and storing experiment. The result showed that the major of organic acid are oxalic acid and tartaric acid and gingerol are 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol, curcumin are 2.32 mg/100 g(dried) and 0.96 mg/100 g(dried) in the Guangdong ginger and Chu ginger. The major of volatile components of ginger oil of Guangdong ginger, Chu ginger are sesqueterpenes, and found the highest content is zingiberene, which contained 20.85%, 17.55%. Evaluation of the antioxidant capability of the ethanol and water extract, the result showed the ethanol extract is better than water extract .
In ginger sesame oil, the major of gingerol are 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol, and found the highest content of curcumin are GEPSH, BEPSH. Evalution of the antioxidant capability (total antioxidant capability, DPPH free radical scavenging capability, reduction capability, Fe2+ chelating capability), the result showed that the GEPSH, CEPSH are best, and the GPS, CPS are better, but the GES,CES are poor on antioxidant capability. Storing experiment of the ginger sasame oil, the result have shown that the POV,TBA is increased after one month, AV is increased gradually, but the free fatty acid is reduced gradually, the result showed the ginger sesame oil has antioxidant capability, and can be keep the quality of product. The sesamol is influenced by temperature, and its content is reduced gradually (sesame oil :0.62 mg/g ;ginger sesame oil :0.38 mg/g). Assessment of the Total Bacteria Count of the storage, found the GPS and CPS group of microorganism grow after 14 days, then is increased to( 6.25 CFU/g, 5.97 CFU/g) after 35 days, but the microorganism do not grow in the other GEPSH, CEPSH, GES, CES) groups. The AV is increased because the storing time increase, and found the (SO) blank group is best(from 1.77 mg to 2.95 mgKOH/g), GES group is better. The POV is reduced, found the CEPSH group is best (from 12.11 to 11.07 meq/kg oil). On the other hand, the TBA is increased because the storing time increase, and found the CEPSH group is best( from 9.70 to 11.47 μmole/g)。

Keywords:Guangdong ginger, Chu ginger, ginger, sesame oil, antioxidant, essential oil, aroma compounds

表目錄

表一、廣東薑及竹薑之一般成分分析 65
表二、廣東薑及竹薑之有機酸分析 67
表三、廣東薑及竹薑薑辣素的含量 70
表四、廣東薑及竹薑薑黃素的含量 73
表五、廣東薑及竹薑揮發性成份之百分比(%) 76
表六、廣東薑及竹薑之總抗氧化能力之比較 82
表七、廣東薑及竹薑之FRAP還原能力之比較 85
表八-1、廣東薑及竹薑水萃之DPPH自由基清除能力之比較 88
表八-2、廣東薑及竹薑乙醇萃之DPPH自由基清除能力之比較 90
表九-1、廣東薑及竹薑水萃之亞鐵離子螯合能力之比較 93
表九-2、廣東薑及竹薑乙醇萃之亞鐵離子螯合能力之比較 95
表十、薑麻油中一般成分分析 97
表十一、薑麻油中薑辣素的含量 100
表十二、薑麻油中薑黃素的含量 103
表十三、薑麻油中芝麻酚之含量 105
表十四、薑麻油中植物固醇之含量 107
表十五、薑麻油中色澤分析 110
表十六、薑麻油之香氣成分含量 120
表十七、薑麻油中總抗氧化能力之比較 135
表十八、薑麻油中FRAP還原能力之比較 138
表十九、薑麻油中DPPH自由基清除能力之比較 141
表二十、薑麻油中亞鐵離子螯合能力之比較 144
表二十一、薑麻油儲藏期間中酸價之變化 147
表二十二、薑麻油儲藏期間中過氧化物價之變化 150
表二十三、薑麻油儲藏期間中硫巴比妥酸價之變化 153
表二十四、薑麻油儲藏期間中游離脂肪酸之變化 156
表二十五、薑麻油儲藏期間期間中總生菌數之變化 159
表二十六-1、薑麻油儲藏期間色澤品評之變化 162
表二十六-2、薑麻油儲藏期間風味品評之變化 163
表二十六-3、薑麻油儲藏期間辣味品評之變化 164
表二十六-4、薑麻油儲藏期間整體喜好性品評之變化 165

圖目錄

圖一、薑的品種 5
圖二、 Gingerol及shogaol的分子結構 9
圖三、薑黃素的化學結構 11
圖四、芝麻活性成分的分子結構 15
圖五、丙二醛形成的途徑 23
圖六、植物固醇的命名 31
圖七、廣東薑及竹薑薑辣素的含量 69
圖八、廣東薑及竹薑薑黃素的含量 72
圖九、廣東薑及竹薑之總抗氧化能力之比較 81
圖十、廣東薑及竹薑之FRAP還原能力之比較 84
圖十一-1、廣東薑及竹薑水萃之DPPH自由基清除能力之比較 87
圖十一-2、廣東薑及竹薑乙醇萃之DPPH自由基清除能力之比較 89
圖十二-1、廣東薑及竹薑水萃之亞鐵離子螯合能力之比較 92
圖十二-2、廣東薑及竹薑乙醇萃之亞鐵離子螯合能力之比較 94
圖十三、薑麻油中薑辣素的含量 99
圖十四、薑麻油中薑黃素的含量 102
圖十五、薑麻油中總抗氧化能力之比較 134
圖十六、薑麻油中FRAP還原能力之比較 137
圖十七、薑麻油中DPPH自由基清除能力之比較 140
圖十八、薑麻油中亞鐵離子螯合能力之比較 143
圖十九、薑麻油儲藏期間中酸價之變化 146
圖二十、薑麻油儲藏期間中過氧化物價之變化 149
圖二十一、薑麻油儲藏期間中硫巴比妥酸價之變化 152


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