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研究生:廖淑慧
論文名稱:台灣藜不同顏色種子機能性成分之差異及降血脂功能性之評估
指導教授:陳玉舜陳玉舜引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:食品暨應用生物科技所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:台灣藜降血脂
外文關鍵詞:Djulisdecreasing lipidemia
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台灣藜(Chenopodium formosanum Koidz.)是台灣特有穀物,排灣族人稱它為Djulis;是一種富含蛋白質及膳食纖維之高價值之食品,其膳食纖維中含有多醣體(β-葡聚糖)。高血脂症(Hyperlipidemia)與許多慢性文明病息息相關,已有許多文獻報告指出,β-葡聚糖具有調節血脂之作用。在此研究中探討不同顏色(紫色、橘色及黃色)台灣藜種子機能性成分之差異,探討其酵素活性、分子量、多醣體含量;並比較添加1%及2%不同顏色台灣藜種子至高脂飲食中餵食SD大鼠,探討試驗28天後的血脂代謝影響。結果顯示,乾燥前的紫色台灣藜種子萃取物的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性最高(11260 U/g);乾燥後紫色台灣藜種子萃取物的α-澱粉酶活性最高(3037 U/g);乳過氧化酶和溶菌酶活性則是乾燥後橘色台灣藜種子萃取物最高(分別為93 U/mg和973 U/mg)。多醣體含量以橘色台灣藜種子最高,其次為紫色及黃色的台灣藜種子,其含量分別為11.77 ± 1.89、11.68 ± 1.06、11.28 ± 1.16 mg/g;分子量分別為561、556及558道爾頓(Daltons)。動物試驗結果顯示,不論是正常飲食中添加1%和2%不同顏色台灣藜種子,或是高脂飲食中添加1%和2%不同顏色台灣藜種子,在餵食大鼠28天後,大鼠的總膽固醇(TC)、三酸甘油酯(TG)方面濃度顯著低於控制組(p<0.05);在高密度脂蛋白膽固醇(HDL-C)方面,正常飲食中添加2%台灣藜種子(紫色、橘色和黃色)的各組、正常飲食中添加1%橘色台灣藜種子,其HDL-C濃度顯著高於控制組(p<0.05),其餘各組HDL-C濃度並無顯著差異。在低密度脂蛋白膽固醇(LDL-C)方面,正常飲食中添加1%及2%紫色及黃色台灣藜種子、高脂飲食中添加2%紫色台灣藜種子,其LDL-C濃度顯著低於控制組(p<0.05),其餘各組LDL-C濃度並無顯著差異。安全性評估試驗中發現,以單次最高劑量3000 mg/kg BW之台灣藜餵飼大鼠並連續觀察14天,結果顯示,不同處理均未造成SD大鼠急性中毒或死亡;此外,以500、1000及2000 mg/kg BW之不同處理每日餵飼SD大鼠連續28天,結果顯示,經長期餵飼後未引起SD大鼠慢性中毒或死亡。在沙門氏菌回復突變試驗(安姆氏法)方面,不同處理之台灣藜(100-600 mg/plate)對5種菌種的回復突變菌落數均在正常範圍,即回復突變菌落數小於自然回復突變數2倍以內。由上述結果得知,台灣藜的攝取對高脂飲食的雄性SD大鼠而言,具有降低血脂質(尤其是TC及TG)之作用,且未造成SD大鼠急性或慢性死亡或中毒之現象,無致基因突變之疑慮。
Chenopodium formosanum Koidzs. is a native cereal plant in Taiwan. Paiwan have a call “Djulis”. Djulis is the high value of the food which is rich in protein and dietary fiber. The dietary fiber contains polysaccharides (β-glucan). Hyperlipidemia is closely related with many chronic diseases of civilization. Many studies have reported that β-glucan has the role of regulating lipids. In this study, having discussed the difference of different colors (purple, orange and yellow) of Djulis seeds functional components, including its enzyme activity, molecular weight, polysaccharide content. Comparing to the experiment of adding 1% and 2% of different colors of Djulis in the high-fat food to feed Sprague-Dawley rats is to discuss the impacts of lipid metabolism after 28 days. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) were the highest (11260 U / g) in the extract of purple Djulis seed before drying. The α-amylase were the highest (3037 U / g ) in the extract of dried purple Djulis seed after drying. The lactoperoxidase and lysozyme were the highest (respectively, 93 U / mg and 973 U / mg) in drying orange extract of Djulis seed after drying. The extract of orange Djulis seeds was the highest Polysaccharide, followed by purple and yellow Djulis seeds. Polysaccharide content were 11.77 ± 1.89、11.68 ± 1.06 and11.28 ± 1.16 mg / g, respectively. Molecular weights were 561,556 and 558 Daltons respectively. Animal experiments showed that both the normal diet supplemented with 1% and 2% of different colors of Djulis seeds, or high-fat diet added 1% and 2% of different colors of Djulis seeds are showed that Sprague-Dawley rats’ total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) concentrations are significantly lower than in the control group (p <0.05) after feeding rats for 28 days. In the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), the normal diet added 2% Djulis (purple, orange and yellow) of each group, normal diet added 1% Djulis. The rest of the groups HDL-C of concentration have no significant difference. In terms of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the concentration of LDL-C is significantly lower than control group (p <0.05) when it added 1% and 2% purple and yellow Djulis in the regular diet, and 2% purple Djulis in high-fatdiet. The rest of thegroups LDL-C of concentration have no significant difference. Safety assessment tests found that fed SD rats by a dose of up to 3000 mg / kg BW of Djulis and continuously observed for 14 days. The results show that the different treatments didn’t cause acute poisoning or death of rats. In addition, fed SD rats by a dose of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg / kg BW of Djulis and continuously observed for 28 days. The results show that it didn’t cause chronic poisoning or death of rats by the long-term feeding. In terms of Salmonella/microsome reversion assay (Ames Test), the value of the different treatment of Djulis (100-600 mg / plate) to the five tester strains of number of revertant colonies were within normal range which mean number of revertant colonies is less than 2 times number of revertant colonies. The above results revealed that the assimilation of Djulis has an effect of lowing serum lipids (especially TC and TG) for male of SD rats and did not cause the phenomenon of acute or chronic poisoning or death, whit no mutagenic qualm.
中文摘要 1
ABSTRACT 3
第一章 前言 10
第二章 文獻整理 11
2.1 高血脂症(HYPERLIPIDEMIA) 11
2.1.1 血清脂質 11
2.1.2 血漿脂蛋白 11
2.1.3 何謂高血脂症(Hyperlipidemia) 15
2.2 台灣藜(DJULIS;CHENOPODIUM FORMOSANUM KOIDZ.) 18
2.3 膠體過濾層析法(GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY;GPC) 24
2.4 酵素活性 24
2.4.1 超氧化物歧化酶(Superoxide Dismutase;SOD) 24
2.4.2 乳過氧化酶(Lactoperoxidase;LPO) 24
2.4.3 溶菌酶(Lysozyme) 25
2.4.4 α-澱粉酶(α-amylase) 27
2.5 28天餵食毒性試驗(28-DAY FEEDING TOXICITY STUDY) 28
2.6 沙門氏菌回復突變試驗(安姆氏法) 28
第三章 材料與方法 29
3.1樣品製備 29
3.2酵素分析(ENZYME ASSAY) 29
3.2.1溶菌酶(Lysozyme) 29
3.2.2乳過氧化酶 (Lactoperoxidase;LPO) 29
3.2.3超氧化物歧化酶(Superoxide Dismutase;SOD) 30
3.2.4 α-澱粉酶(α-amylase) 30
3.3多醣體之萃取 (EXTRACTION OF POLYSACCHARIDE) 31
3.4凝膠滲透層析法 (GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY;GPC) 34
3.5安全性評估---28天餵食毒性試驗(28-DAY FEEDING TOXICITY STUDY) 35
3.5.1試驗目的 35
3.5.2試驗準則及依據 35
3.5.3試驗動物 35
3.5.4試驗動物飼養環境 35
3.5.5試驗方法 36
3.6安全性評估---沙門氏菌回復突變試驗(AMES TEST) 38
3.6.1試驗目的 38
3.6.2試驗方法 38
3.7降血脂功能性之評估 38
3.7.1血清三酸甘油酯(Serum Triacylglycerol,TG) 38
3.7.2血清總膽固醇(Serum Total Cholesterol; TC) 39
3.7.3血清高密度脂蛋白膽固醇(Serum HDL-C) 39
3.7.4血清低密度脂蛋白膽固醇(Serum LDL-C) 39
3.8統計分析(STATISTICAL ANALYSIS) 39
第四章 結果與討論 40
4.1酵素活性(ENZYMEACTIVITIES) 40
4.2多醣體含量 42
4.3凝膠滲透層析法(GPC) 44
4.4安全性評估---28天餵食毒性試驗 46
4.5安全性評估---沙門氏菌回復突變試驗(AMES TEST) 52
4.6動物試驗---降血脂功能性評估 54
4.6.1總膽固醇(TC) 54
4.6.2低密度脂蛋白膽固醇(LDL-C) 56
4.6.3高密度脂蛋白膽固醇(HDL-C) 58
4.6.4三酸甘油酯(TG) 60
第五章 結論 62
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