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研究生:郭元桐
研究生(外文):Kuo,Yuan-Tong
論文名稱:研製具充電平衡之鋰鐵電池組測試系統
論文名稱(外文):Development of an LiFePo4 Battery Pack Test System with Charge Equalization
指導教授:吳啟耀
指導教授(外文):Wu,Chi-Yao
口試委員:楊宗銘張嘉德吳啟耀
口試委員(外文):Young,Chung-MingChang,Chia-DerWu,Chi-Yao
口試日期:2011-07-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:明志科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:鋰鐵電池電池測試系統LabVIEW人機介面電壓平衡
外文關鍵詞:LiFePO4 batteryBattery test systemLabVIEWHuman Machine InterfaceCell balancing
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鋰鐵電池(LiFePo4,磷酸鐵鋰電池)之優點為無毒、無污染、功率密度高、安全性高(不爆炸)、循環使用壽命長、自放電率低及放電過程(負載過程)中輸出電壓平穩,故本文之研究對象選定為鋰鐵電池。
本論文研製一套以個人電腦為平台具有充電平衡之鋰鐵電池組測試系統,此系統可以應用於鋰鐵電池特性之測試及驗證,並且可做為發展電池管理系統(Battery Management Systems, BMS)之工具。本系統硬體方面包含精密型串聯電池組量測板、可程式直流電源供應器、電子負載、電壓平衡電路、數位訊號處理器、及個人電腦。軟體方面採用LabVIEW虛擬儀器軟體平台,以此平台做為本鋰鐵電池測試系統之量測與控制核心。在鋰鐵電池組特性測試過程中,精確地量測電池組之電池芯電壓、電流、及溫度,提供友善的圖形化人機介面及豐富的控制介面選單,可彈性規劃進行電池組充電性能測試、電池組放電性能測試與電池組充電平衡等各項電池組性能測試。
於本文中已執行的測試實驗項目包括鋰鐵電池充電實驗及鋰鐵電池放電實驗。並且在此鋰鐵電池測試系統下,針對鋰鐵電池實際特性,發展ㄧ套適用於鋰鐵電池之電壓平衡策略。於此策略下,控制被動式電壓平衡電路,使得鋰鐵電池串聯電池組中每顆電池芯再充電完成時,達成相近之蓄電率,可延長電池組使用壽命,並使得電池組蓄電能力能完全發揮。
由執行的測試實驗項目可驗證本文已建構一套具有充電被動平衡功能之鋰鐵電池組測試系統,基於此系統可進行鋰鐵電池組的各種特性之測試及驗證,做為改善鋰鐵電池特性及開發鋰鐵電池應用之工具。且於此系統可進行鋰鐵電池組管理系統(BMS)之研發,如電池組電壓平衡、SOC(state of charge)之估測及SOH(state of health)之估測等功能之研發。

The advantaged performances of LiFePo4 battery are high power density, prolong cycle life, lower self discharge, inherently safe, and flat output voltage during discharging, so the paper chooses it as the research’s object.
A PC based LiFePO4 battery pack test system with charge equalization is developed in this paper. The battery pack test system is able to perform the characteristic research of LiFePO4 battery and to develop the prototype of battery management system. The hardware of the test system includes Linear LTC6802-2 battery pack measurement board, DC power supply, electronic load, cell balancing circuit, thermistor, DSP TMS320F2812, and PC. Based on the LabVIEW platform and the developed software architecture, the test executive software offers a user-friendly graphical user interface and a convenient flow-chart method for configuring tests and controlling the system. The battery pack test system can perform battery charging test, battery discharging test and passive charge equalization.
Based on the hardware and software of the battery pack test system, the LiFePo4 battery charge testing and discharge testing experiments are performed, and a cell balancing method for LiFePO4 battery is developed. The developed battery balancing method is validated by the experiments of charge equalization, and the experiment results show that the difference of cell voltage between each cells after the charging are reduced dramatically.
The experiment results have validated that a PC based LiFePO4 battery pack test system with charge equalization is developed in this paper. Based on the testing system, the characteristics of LiFePo4 battery are tested and validated, and the passive charge battery balancing method is developed to conform that the prototype of battery management system can be developed in this system.

明志科技大學碩士學位論文指導教授推薦書 i
明志科技大學碩士學位論文口試委員會審定書 ii
明志科技大學學位論文授權書 iii
誌謝 iv
摘要 v
Abstract vi
目錄 vii
圖目錄 xii
表目錄 xv
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 文獻探討 3
1.3.1 電池組電壓量測 3
1.3.2 電池充電方式 4
1.3.3 電壓平衡 4
1.3.4殘電量估測法 5
1.4 研究方法 5
1.5 論文架構 8
第二章 電池的種類 10
2.1 二次電池分類 10
2.1.1 鉛酸電池 12
2.1.2 鎳鎘電池 13
2.1.3 鎳氫電池 14
2.1.4 鋰鈷電池 14
2.1.5 鋰錳電池 15
2.2 鋰鐵電池 17
2.2.1鋰鐵電池構造 17
2.2.2鋰鐵電池的優點及缺點 20
2.2.3鋰鐵電池的使用 23
2.2.4鋰鐵電池組的電壓平衡 24
第三章 電池特性測量系統主要功能探討 26
3.1 電池測試相關名詞 26
3.2 電池充電策略 27
3.2.1 定電壓充電 28
3.2.2 定電流充電 29
3.2.3 定電流定電壓充電 29
3.2.4 脈衝充電 30
3.2.5 Reflex充電 31
3.3 殘電量估測 31
3.3.1 比重法 31
3.3.2 庫侖法 32
3.3.3 直流內阻法 32
3.3.4 交流阻抗法 33
3.3.5 開路電壓法 34
3.3.6 加載電壓法 34
3.4 電壓平衡機制 36
3.4.1 被動式電壓平衡 36
3.4.2 多變壓器主動式電壓平衡 37
3.4.3 多繞組變壓器主動式電壓平衡 38
3.4.4多隔離型直流穩壓器主動式電壓平衡 39
第四章 鋰鐵電池測試系統硬體架構之研製 40
4.1 鋰鐵電池組的測試項目 40
4.2 鋰鐵電池組測試系統硬體架構之探討 41
4.2.1 鋰鐵電池組充電測試系統基本硬體架構的規劃 41
4.2.2 鋰鐵電池組放電測試系統基本硬體架構的規劃 42
4.3 鋰鐵電池測試系統儀器之介紹 43
4.3.1 精密型串聯電池組監控板:Linear LTC6802-2 43
4.3.2 可程式直流電源供應器:擎宏 CDP-350-030 45
4.3.3 直流電子負載:博計 3354F 46
4.3.4 數位訊號處理器:TI TMS320F2812 47
4.3.5 鋰鐵電池組:蘭陽能源 LYS4866156-20 54
4.3.6 被動式電壓平衡電路 56
4.3.7 鋰鐵電池測試硬體系統規格 57
第五章 鋰鐵電池測試系統軟體架構之撰寫 58
5.1 LabVIEW軟體功能之介紹 58
5.1.1 虛擬儀表 59
5.1.2 人機界面( Front panel ) 59
5.1.3 程式方塊圖( Block diagram ) 60
5.1.4 圖示與連接器 61
5.2 可程式電源供應器的通訊指令與LabVIEW的通訊程式 61
5.3 電子負載的通訊指令與LabVIEW通訊程式 65
5.4 LabVIEW與DSP之通訊及資料擷取處理 68
5.5 溫度偵測 69
5.6 測試系統之人機介面設計及測試程序控制 71
5.7 DSP之資料擷取偵錯及傳送 75
5.8 CRC資料偵錯 75
5.9 電壓平衡機制 77
第六章 實驗結果與討論 79
6.1 充電實驗 80
6.1.1 0.5C定電流充電(無預先電池電壓平衡) 80
6.1.2 0.5C定電流充電(有預先電池電壓平衡) 83
6.1.3 0.5C定電流-定電壓充電(有預先電池電壓平衡) 86
6.1.4 充電實驗結論 90
6.2 放電實驗 91
6.2.1 1C定電流放電實驗 91
6.2.2 2C放電實驗 93
6.2.3 2.5C放電實驗 94
6.2.4 放電實驗結論 96
6.3 鋰鐵電池被動充電電壓平衡策略之研發 97
6.3.1 電壓平衡策略一:充電全程進行電壓平衡 97
6.3.2 電壓平衡策略二:固定判斷條件 99
6.3.3 電壓平衡策略三:固定步距累加值 100
6.3.4 電壓平衡策略四:時間步距累加值-I 101
6.3.5 電壓平衡策略五:時間步距累加值-II 102
6.3.6 鋰鐵電池被動充電電壓平衡結論 103
第七章 結論及未來研究方向 104
7.1 結論 104
7.2 未來研究方向 105
參考文獻 107

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