跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.210.83.132) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/05/27 02:10
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:王靜嬋
研究生(外文):Wang, Ching Chan
論文名稱:「社會支持」模式於新聞從業人員採訪創傷新聞事件後壓力調適之關係初探
論文名稱(外文):The relationship between the “social support mechanism” and traumatic stress journalists bear after covering trauma news events or traumatized victims
指導教授:許瓊文許瓊文引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:新聞研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:中國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:162
中文關鍵詞:創傷壓力間接性創傷壓力社會支持新聞記者
外文關鍵詞:trauma stresssecondary traumatic stressSTSsocial supportjournalists
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:6
  • 點閱點閱:401
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
本研究目的為探討國內新聞從業人員在採訪創傷新聞事件後,是否亦間接地受到創傷壓力所影響;又,社會支持與記者的創傷壓力調適有何關聯;而至今國內新聞界在記者創傷議題這部分的認知與作法處於何種階段。在研究方法上,採用質化的深度訪談法,訪談了包括文字記者、攝影記者以及主管職位等13位國內電視新聞從業人員。研究結果發現,普遍而言,國內電視新聞從業人員所承受身心壓力都較一般人來得高,而部分曾經採訪過重大創傷事件或創傷受害者的記者,更可能經歷深層的創傷壓力徵狀,包括侵入性回憶、逃避、高度警覺等。另外,部分受訪記者對創傷新聞事件的反應冷靜,可能源自記者良好的心理建設,但仍有記者是因為同儕壓力、尋求榮譽感或生計壓力等原因,而必須表現勇敢、甚至漠然,此亦可能為創傷壓力反應的一種。容易造成記者創傷壓力的新聞事件主要包括兩類,一為重大災難,一為看似平常、但可能對個別記者影響深刻的普通新聞事件;而易造成創傷壓力之新聞事件特性包括事件本身的嚴重度、記者深入了解新聞故事、與記者關係密切的人成為新聞主角、具情感張力的畫面。最後,個性、性別、路線、職位、電視台定位等變項可能影響記者是否容易面對創傷事件並受創傷壓力所影響。

接著,研究發現記者主要以「自我調適」與「尋求社會支持」兩種方式來應對可能承受的創傷壓力。在自我調適的部分,受訪記者以「娛樂」以及「重新定義生命或工作價值」的方式,來調整自己的狀態。在尋求社會支持的部分,首先,不若國外文獻對同儕支持的全面推崇,國內記者認為同儕支持主要能夠滿足資訊層面,但對同儕支持所提供的情緒支持仍有遲疑,可能與國內新聞圈的競爭激烈有關;第二,記者認為新聞組織能夠、也必須提供全面的物質支持與資訊支持,但由於現今不論是第一線記者或新聞主管,對記者創傷議題仍不熟悉,因此大部分受訪記者對組織是否能提供情緒支持採保留態度;第三,國內電視記者已不排斥尋求專業支持,但這方面的資訊相當缺乏;第四,雖然記者在擔心傷害家人的情況下,對家庭較不提及自身所承受的創傷壓力,但家庭仍提供了記者深層的情緒支持;第五,宗教支持為國內記者能夠舒服地吐露自身壓力的管道,提供了全然的情緒支持,此為國內新聞脈絡較特殊之處。

再者,國內新聞界雖已開始對記者創傷議題開始有初步的認知與作法,但整體的普及度與實行度仍不高。本研究在理解國內情況與參考國外各新聞組織的作法後,對國內新聞界在記者創傷議題可能能夠努力的方向,提出了若干建議。最後,亦在思考研究發現與研究限制後,對未來學術研究提出幾點建議。

This study investigated trauma experiences of journalists in Taiwan after covering disaster, crime and justice news or interviewing traumatized victims, and how social support mechanism plays a buffering role in their trauma-stress coping. This thesis also explored news rooms’ attention and response toward this issue. This study adapted the semi-structured interview and the grounded theory methodology to analyze in-depth interview data of 13 TV journalists inTaiwan, including script journalists, photojournalists, local journalists and managers.

This study found that the interviewed journalists live under physical and mental pressure. Some of those who have covered traumatic news experienced traumatic symptoms, including intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal. Although some journalists keep calm when they confront traumatic stress events, we still couldn’t overlook the potential traumatic effect since journalists may suppress their authentic feelings because of peer pressure, sense of honor, or bread and butter. In addition, the interviewed journalists employed “self-adjustment” and “seeking social support” to deal with the traumatic stress. First, the journalists relieved their pressure by means of entertainment, and redefining the value of job and the priorities of life. As for social support, the journalists thought that peer support could satisfy the need of information, but may not necessarily offer fully emotional support because of the flaming competitions between journalists and news organizations. As for news rooms, the journalists asked for tangible support, namely resources and informational support, but were suspicious of the emotional support.

Then, this study found that the journalists are willing to seek professional support, but seldom seek support from family because of the worry of horrifying their family members. However, it does not mean that the emotional support from family is not important, and being there is the best support for journalists. Finally, religion support is the main channel from which the journalists could feel safe, peace and calm, which is a unique phenomenon in the Taiwan media settings.

In the end, after understanding the Taiwan media situations and consulting the practices of foreign news organizations, this study recommended some suggestions and implications for future studies and news rooms accordingly.

中文摘要 ii
Abstract iv
謝誌 vi
目次 viii
圖次 xii
表次 xiii
前言 1
第一章、緒論 2
第一節、研究背景與問題意識 2
第二節、現今研究概況 7
第三節、研究問題與研究目的 9
第四節、論文結構 10
第五節、相關新聞與創傷研究組織之介紹 11
一、達德新聞與創傷中心(Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma) 11
二、犯罪與司法報導(Covering Crime and Justice) 12
三、波因特線上(Poynter Online) 12
四、創傷新聞研究群 13
第二章、文獻探討 14
第一節、創傷壓力與間接性創傷壓力 14
一、創傷壓力相關概念之名詞釐清:創傷後壓力症候群、急性創傷壓力、間接性創傷壓力、同情心疲軟、倦怠 14
二、第一線工作人員之創傷研究結果 19
三、新聞從業人員之創傷研究結果 23
四、小結 31
第二節、社會支持與創傷壓力調適 33
一、社會支持作為調適創傷之中介變項(moderator):緩衝假設 33
二、社會支持的定義與內容 35
三、社會支持的來源(source) 38
四、第一線工作人員之社會支持研究 43
五、新聞從業人員之社會支持研究 44
六、小結 46
第三節、國外各界對新聞從業人員的創傷壓力所實施的做法 47
一、現今關注新聞從業人員創傷的單位 48
二、國外新聞組織之實施情況與形式 49
三、國內新聞組織對記者創傷壓力議題之實施現狀 52
四、小結 53
第四節、研究架構圖 55
第三章、研究方法 57
第一節、研究方法之選擇 57
一、質化的研究方法 57
二、深度訪談法 58
三、訪談大綱與方式 59
第二節、研究進行與受訪者選擇 60
第三節、訪談資料之分析 64
第四章、研究結果與討論 65
第一節、國內新聞從業人員面對創傷壓力之現況 65
一、大多數的國內記者曾經面對淺層、短期的之身心壓力 65
二、部分國內記者經歷深層、長期的創傷壓力反應─與STS類似 67
三、潛藏在記者冷靜反應之下的多重原因─我不是真的那麼勇敢 73
四、主要可能造成記者創傷壓力的新聞事件之類別與特性 76
五、可能影響創傷壓力是否出現的變項:採訪路線、工作職位、個性、性別與電視台定位 79
六、小結 82
第二節、新聞從業人員應對創傷壓力之方法:自我調適與尋求社會支持 85
一、記者多以「娛樂」、「定義新工作或生命價值」方式自我調適 86
二、國內記者並不完全接受「同儕支持」─能夠滿足「資訊支持」,對「情緒支持」仍存有雜音 88
三、組織支持─首先能滿足物質與資訊支持,對情緒支持能否達成仍是觀望狀態 91
四、不排斥尋求專業支持,但缺少相關資訊 95
五、較少論及家庭支持,但不代表不重要 97
六、宗教支持─記者能夠舒服地尋求情緒支持之途 98
七、小結 99
第三節、國內新聞組織對記者創傷議題之想法與作法 102
一、是否具備全面性資訊傳授的在職訓練 103
二、是否視記者身心負擔情況調整人力調派 105
三、新嘗試:在任務結束後舉行記者分享經驗的討論會 106
四、新嘗試:與專業醫療單位建立合作機制 108
五、小結 109
第五章、研究結論、限制與建議 113
第一節、研究結論 113
第二節、對實務工作的建議 117
第三節、研究貢獻、研究限制與後續研究建議 121
一、研究貢獻 121
二、研究限制 122
三、後續研究建議 123
參考文獻 128
附錄 140

中央社(2009/12/30)。〈無國界記者組織:選舉暴力危害記者不遜戰爭〉。2010年1月25號取自http://udn.com/NEWS/WORLD/BREAKINGNEWS5/5338567.shtml。
台灣新聞記者協會(譯)(2005)。《衝進新聞第一線:帶著報導,活著出來》。台北:商周。(原書IFJ, 2004. Live News: A Survival Guide for Journalists.)
江穎盈(2009)。《大學生的生活壓力、社會支持與生命意義之研究》。國立政治大學教育研究所碩士論文。未出版
李政賢(譯)(2006)。《質性研究:設計與計畫撰寫》。台北,五南。(原書C. Marshall & G. B. Rossman. Designing qualitative research.)
李茂政(1987)。《當代新聞學》。台北市:正中。
李惠仁(2009)。《紀錄片:睜開左眼》。國立政治大學傳播學院碩士在職專班碩士學位作品創作報告。未出版。
林秀程(2003)。《澎湖空難救援經驗與心理衛生處遇之研究》。政戰學校軍社所社工組碩士論文。未出版。
林佳蓉(2001)。《幼兒教師任教職志、工作壓力及社會支持之質性研究》。屏東師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文。未出版。
胡中宜(1997)。《保護管束年少福利需求滿足、社會支持與情緒幸福感之相關研究》。中國文化大學兒童福利研究所碩士論文。未出版。
胡幼慧(1996a)。〈質性研究的分析與寫成〉,胡幼慧(編)《質性研究:理論、方法及本土女性研究實例》,頁159-170。台北:巨流。
胡幼慧(1996b)。〈多元方法〉,胡幼慧(編)《質性研究:理論、方法及本土女性研究實例》,頁271-285。台北:巨流。
胡幼慧、姚美華(1996)。〈一些質性方法上的思考〉,胡幼慧(編)《質性研究:理論、方法及本土女性研究實例》,頁141-158。台北:巨流。
胡欣怡(2005)。《創傷後成長的內涵與機制初探:以九二一震災為例》。國立台灣大學心理學研究所碩士論文。未出版。
范相惠(2008)。《台灣新聞從業人員工作中閒聊現象之初探》。國立交通大學傳播研究所碩士論文。未出版。
唐維敏(譯)(1996)。《大眾傳播研究方法:質化取向》。台北:五南。(原書Jensen, K. B. & Jankowski, N. W.[1991]. A handbook of qualitative methodologies for mass communication research. London: Routledge.)
張滿玲(譯)(2003)。社會心理學。台北:雙葉書廊。(原書Taylor, S., Peplau, L. & Sears, D., 1997)
張麗芬(1996)。《低收入女性單親家庭的形成過程》。國立政治大學社會學研究所碩士論文。未出版。
許瓊文(2009)。〈新聞記者採訪報導受害者應面對的新聞倫理:多元觀點的論證〉,《新聞學研究》,100:1-55。
陳向明(2002)。《社會科學質的研究》。台北:五南。
陸逸馨(2008)。《在筆鋒之外─記者採訪災難後的心理衝擊》。國立台灣大學新聞研究所碩士論文。未出版。
新聞與創傷研究群(2010a)。〈自學單元一〉。2010年1月25號取自http://traumanewswatch.nccu.edu.tw/?page_id=181。
新聞與創傷研究群(2010b)。〈自學單元三〉。2010年5月28號取自http://traumanewswatch.nccu.edu.tw/?page_id=181。
熊迺祺(2008)。《新聞記者遭遇職場暴行之研究》。國立中正大學犯罪防治所碩士論文。未出版。
劉仲冬(1996)。〈民族誌研究法及實例〉,胡幼慧(編)《質性研究:理論、方法及本土女性研究實例》,頁173-193。台北:巨流。
劉駿州(1994)。〈實證、批判、詮釋─三大方法典範初探〉。新聞學研究(48),頁 153-167。
蕭慧芳(2007)。《悲劇性新聞畫面對觀眾心理衝擊程度之初探》。國立政治大學傳播學院碩士在職專班碩士論文。未出版。
聯合報(2009/09/02)。〈雙姝遭拘禁數月 獲釋記者透露:北韓兵越邊界綁人〉。A13,國際。
Abdel-Halim, A. A.(1982). Social support and managerial affective responses to job stress. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 3, 281-295.
American Psychiatric Association(APA)(2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(4th Ed). Washington DC: APA.
Barrera, M. J. & Ainlay, S. L.(1983). The Structure of social support: A conceptual and empirical analysis. Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 133-143.
Beaton, R., Murphy, S., Johnson, C., Pike, K., & Corneil, W.(1999). Coping responses and posttraumatic stress symptomatology in urban fire services personnel. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12(2), 293–308.
Benedek, D. M., Fullerton, C. & Ursano, R. J.(2007). First responders: Mental health consequences of natural and human-made disasters for public health and public safety workers. Annual Review of Public Health, 28, 55-68.
Bennetts, J.(2008). Protecting Our Journalists: Issues of Safety and Traumatic Stress in the Media. A Report for the Robert Bell Travelling Scholarship University of Canterbury.
Bisson, J. I., Brayne, M., Ochberg, F. M. & Everly, G. S.(2007). Early Psychosocial Intervention Following Traumatic Events. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(7), 1016-1019.
Boscarino, J. A.(1995). Post-traumatic stress and associated disorders among Vietnam veterans: The significance of combat exposure and social support. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(2), 317-336.
Brayne, M.(2007). Trauma & Journalism: A Guide for Journalists, Editors & Managers. Retrieved on January, 17th, 2010, from www.dartcenter.org(Dart Centre for Journalism and Trauma).
Bride, B.(2007). Prevalence of secondary traumatic stress among social workers. Social Work, 52(1), 63-70.
Brief, A., & Weiss, H.(2002). Organizational behavior: Affect in workplace. Annual Review in Psychology, 53, 279-307.
Brown, J., Mulhern, G., & Joseph, S.(2002). Incident-related stressors, locus of control, coping and psychological distress among firefighters in Northern Ireland. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(2), 161–168.
Calhoun,L. G., Cann, A., Tedeschi,R. G., & McMillan, J.(2000). A Correlational Test of the Relationship Between, Posttraumatic Growth, Religion, and Cognitive Processing. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13(3), 521-527.
Cameron, J.(2007). Journalism and Trauma: Research report. Institute of Work Psychology.
Caplan, G.(1974). Support systems and community mental health: Lectures on concept development. New York: Behavioral Publications.
Caplan, G.(1976). The family as support system. In G. Caplan & M. KiUilea (Eds.), Support systems and mutual help: Multidisciplinary explorations. New York: Grune & Stratton.
Carver, C. S. (1998). Resilience and thriving: Issues, models, and linkages. Journal of Social Issues, 54(2), 245–266.
Castle, P.(1999). Journalism and trauma: Proposals for change. Asia Pacific Media Educator, 1(7), 143-150.
Cobb, S.(1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine. 38, 300-314.
Coetzee, S. K., & Klopper, H. C.(2010). Compassion fatigue within nursing practice: A concept analysis. Nursing and Health Science, 12, 235-243.
Cohen, S. & Wills, T. A.(1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310-357.
Dart Centre Australasia(2010.03.26). Peer Support for Journalists. Retrieved on March, 27th, 2010, from http://dartcenter.org/content/peer-support-for-journalists-watch-video-online.
Dominguez-Gomez, B. & Rutledge, D. N.(2009). Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress Among Emergency Nurses. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 35(3), 199-204.
Dworznik, G.(2006). Journalism and Trauma: How reporters and photographers make sense of what they see. Journalism Studies, 7(4), 534-553.
Feinstein, A., Owen, J. & Blair, N.(2002). A Hazardous Profession: War, Journalists, and Psychopathology. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(9), 1570-1575.
Figley, C. R.(1995). Compassion fatigue as secondary traumatic stress disorder: An overview. In C.R. Figley (Ed.), Compassion fatigue: Coping with secondary traumatic stress disorder in those who treat the traumatized(pp. 1–20). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Figley, C. R.(1999). Compassion fatigue: Towards a new understanding of the costs of caring. In B. Hudnall Stamm(Ed.), Secondary traumatic stress: Self care issues for clinicians, researchers, and educators(pp. 3-28). Maryland: Sidran Press.
Figley, C.(2002). Compassion fatigue: Psychotherapists’s chronic lack of self care. Journal of Clinical Psychology/In Session: Psychotherapy in Practice, 58(11), 1433-1441.
Frank, R. M. & Perigoe, R.(2009). Informed Mutual Support: Options on Violence and Trauma from the Perspective of the Journalist. Canadian Journal of Media Studies, 5(1).
Fusilier, M. R., Ganster, D. C., & Mayes, B. T.(1987). Effects of social support, role stress, and locus of control on health. Journal of Management, 13, 517-528.
Green, B. L., & Berlin, M. A.(1987). Five psychosocial variables related to the existence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43(6), 643-649.
Green, K. P. & Sykes, J.(2005.07). Post-disaster counseling for journalists: professionalization drives change. Paper presented at the IAMCR Congress, Taipei.
Harville,E. W., Xiong, X., Buekens, P., Pridjian, G. & Elkind-Hirsch, K. (2010). Resilience After Hurricane Katrina Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women. Women’s Health Issues, 20, 20–27.
Hight, J. & Smyth, F.(2003). Tragedies & Journalists: A Guide for More Effective Coverage. Retrieved on January, 17th, 2010, from www.dartcenter.org.
House, J. S.(1981). Work stress and social support. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Huggard, P.(2003). Secondary traumatic stress. New Ethicals Journal, September, 9-14.
Hyman, O.(2004). Perceived Social Support and Secondary Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Emergency Responders. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(2), 149–156.
International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies(ISTSS)(2007). What is Traumatic Stress. Retrieved on February , 23th, 2010, from http://www.istss.org/resources/what_is_traumatic_stress.cfm.
Jenkins, S., & Baird, S.(2002). Secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma: A validational study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15, 423-432.
Joinson, C.(1992). Coping with compassion fatigue. Nursing, 22, 116-121.
Kaufmann, G. M., & Beehr, T. A.(1989). Occupational stressors, individual strains, and social supports among police officers. Human Relations, 42(2), 185-197.
Kolk, B. A. & Fisler, R.(1995). Dissociation and the Fragmentary Nature of Traumatic Memories: Overview and Exploratory Study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(4),505-525.
Kopel, H., & Friedman, M.(1997). Post traumatic Symptoms in South African Police Exposed to Violence. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10(2), 307-317.
Krause, N.(2007). Longitudinal Study of Social Support and Meaning in Life. Psychology and Aging, 22(3),456-469.
Kuzel, A. J.(1992). Sampling in qualitative inquiry. In B. F. Crabtree & W. L. Miller(Eds.), Doing qualitative research. Research methods for primary care (pp. 31-44). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications.
LaRocco, J. M., House, J. S. & Frenchm J. R. P.(1980). Social Support, Occupational Stress, and Health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21, 202-218.
Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S.(2004). Positive change following trauma and adversity: a review. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 11–21.
Lord, C. G., Ross, L., & Lepper, M. R.(1979). Biased assimilation and attitude polarization. The effects of prior theories on subsequently considered evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 2098-2109.
Luce, A., Firth-Cozen, J., Midgley, S., & Burges, C.(2002). After the Omagh bomb: Posttraumatic stress disorder in health service staff. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15(1), 27–30.
Marais, A. & Stuart, A. D.(2005). The role of temperament in the development of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder amongst journalists. South African Journal of Psychology, 35(1), 89-105.
McMahon, C. & McLellan, T.(2008). Journalists Reporting for Duty: Resilience, Trauma and Growth. In K. Gow & D. Paton (Eds.), Phoenix of Natural Disasters: Community Resilience. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 101-121.
McMahon, C.(2001). Covering disaster: A pilot study into secondary trauma for print media journalists reporting on disaster. The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 16(2), 52-56.
Meadors, P., Lamson, A., Swanson, M., White, M., & Sira, N.(2009). Secondary Traumatization in Pediatric Healthcare Providers: Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Secondary Traumatic Stress. OMEGA, 60(2), 103-128.
Mercier, G.(2010.03.24). UNESCO: Record Number Of Journalists Killed In 2009. Retrieved on March, 27th, 2010, from http://newsjunkiepost.com/2010/03/24/unesco-record-number-of-journalists-killed-in-2009/.
Newman, E., Simpson, R., & Handschuh, D.(2003). Trauma exposure and post traumatic stress disorder among photojournalists. Visual Communication Quarterly, 10(1), 4-13.
Ochberg, F.(n.d.). PTSD 101. Retrieved on January, 17th, 2010, from http://dartcenter.org/content/ptsd-101.
Park, C. L., Cohen, L. H., & Murch, R.(1996). Assessment and prediction of stress-related growth. Journal of Personality, 64, 71-105.
Poulin, M. J., Silver, R. C., Gil-Rivas, V., Holman, E. A. & McIntosh, D. N. (2009). Finding Social Benefits After a Collective Trauma: Perceiving Societal Changes and Well-Being Following 9/11. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2 (2), 81–90.
Prati, G., & Pietrantoni, L.(2010). The relation of perceived and received social support to mental health among first responders: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3), 403-417.
Pyevich, C. M., Newman, E. & Daleiden, E.(2003). The Relationship Among Cognitive Schemas, Job-Related Traumatic Exposure, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Journalists. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16(4), 325-328.
Ricchiardi, S.(1999). Confronting the Horror. American Journalism Review, 21(1), 34.
Ricchiardi, S.(2001). After Adrenaline. American Journalism Review, 23(9), 34-39.
Rosenbloom, D. J., Pratt, A. C., & Pearlman, L. A.(1999). Helpers’ responses to trauma work: understanding and intervening in an organization. In B. Hudnall Stamm (Ed.), Secondary traumatic stress: Self care issues for clinicians, researchers, and educators(pp. 65-79). Maryland: Sidran Press.
Sarason, B. R., Sarason, I. G., & Pierce, G. R.(1990). Traditional view of social support and their impact on assessment. In B. R. Sarason, I. G. Sarason, & G. R. Pierce.(Eds.), Social support: An interactional view(pp. 9-25). New York: John Wiley &Sans.
Sarason, I. G., Levine, H. M., Basham, R. B., & Sarason, B. R.(1983). Assessing social support: The Social Support Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44(1), 127-139.
Schuster, M. A., Stein, B. D., Jaycox, L. H., Collins, R. L., Marshall, G. N., Elliott, M. N., Zhou, A. J., Kanouse, D. E., Morrison, J. L., & Berry, S.H.(2001). A national survey of stress reactions after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 234(20), 1507-1512.
Sibbald, B.(2002). Post-traumatic stress an occupational hazard for journalists? Canadian Medical Association Journal, 166(13), 1704.
Simpson, R.(2004). Journalism and Trauma: A Long Overdue Conjunction. Nieman Reports, summer, 77-79.
Smith, R. & Newman, E.(2008). Covering Trauma: Impact on Journalists. Retrieved on January, 17th, 2010, from http://dartcenter.org/content/covering-trauma-impact-on-journalists.
Spratt, M.(n.d.).Unraveling Media and Trauma Connections. Retrieved on January, 17th, 2010, from http://dartcenter.org/content/unraveling-media-and-trauma-connections.
Stephens, C., Long, N., & Miller, I.(1997). The impact of trauma and social support on posttraumatic stress disorder: A study of New Zealand police officers. Journal of Criminal Justice, 25(4), 303-314.
Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G.(1996). The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 455-471.
Thoits, P. A.(1982). Conceptual, methodological, and the theoretical problems in studying social support as a buffer against life stress. Journal of Health and Siocial Behavior, 23(2), 145-159.
Wason, P. C.(1960). On the failure to eliminate hypotheses in a conceptual task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 129-140.
Weidmann, A., Fehm, L., & Fydrich, T.(2008). Covering the tsunami disaster: Subsuquent post-traumatic and depressive symptoms and associated social factors. Stress and Health, 24(2), 129-135.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top