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研究生:哈溫海
研究生(外文):Karl Wendell Haby
論文名稱:台灣的住戶太陽能市場: 障礙, 解決辦法與發展遠景
論文名稱(外文):Taiwan’s residential solar photovoltaic (PV) market: barriers, solutions and developmental prospects
指導教授:林子倫林子倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin, Tze Luen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:亞太研究英語碩士學位學程(IMAS)
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:再生能源太陽能
外文關鍵詞:Renewable energySolar PV
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雖然台灣在太陽能PV科技製造業上位居於領先位置,也採取了FIT來推廣太陽能PV及其他再生能源,但是市場的吸收(以及新計畫的完成)至今仍是進展緩慢;因此再生能源在台灣明顯且矛盾的狀況成了本論文的研究動機

為了理解為什麼有這種狀況,本論文採用了兩個廣泛的觀點:
(一)市場障礙觀點:這個觀點提供了一個簡明的總結;在經濟學上國內太陽能PV的安裝,特別是家用投資者在FIT計劃下考慮電網連接。
(二)市場轉型觀點:這個觀點確定了影響並降低台灣再生能源市場的因素或是參與者(政府機關或其他相關團體的人員)。
本論文最後一個章節中提出了可能有助於提高台灣太陽能PV或是其他再生能源的接受度的實用步驟及政策措施。

本研究結果指向複雜且費時的申請手續,反覆修改的相關法令,及設定太低的FIT為至今台灣太陽能PV市場開發成功有限的主要原因。低電價、政府與台電間所發展出的相互依賴狀況以及極力避免破壞現況的密集產業為造成這些狀況的難題。

為了解決這些缺陷,本論文建議立即將FIT上修(至少每千瓦新台幣12.6元)並恢復補貼中小型投資者的資本。削除行政與程序上的障礙是促進在地太陽能PV市場和建立信心的整體方案上非常重要的的一環。論文中的最後一章節提到一個發展框架,並且描述了 一些針對於更棘手並減緩台灣的多元化能源供應問題的可能解決方案。

The motivation for this research stems from an obvious contradiction in Taiwan’s approach to renewable energy – that while Taiwan remains a leading manufacturer of solar photovoltaics (PV) technology, and has adopted a feed-in-tariff (FIT) to promote solar PV and other renewable energies, market uptake (and completion of new projects) has so far been slow.

In order to understand why, this thesis adopts two broad-based perspectives first identified by the International Energy Agency (IEA): (i) the Market Barriers Perspective provides a concise summary of the economics of domestic solar PV installation in Taiwan, specifically for the small scale (residential) investor contemplating grid connection under the FIT scheme; (ii) the Market Transformation Perspective identifies those factors (or actors) contributing to inertia in the renewable energy market in Taiwan. A final section in this thesis is given over to describing practical steps and policy approaches which may help boost solar PV (and other renewable) capacity in Taiwan.

The results of this research point to a complicated and time-consuming applications process, repeated changes to relevant legislation, and a FIT which is set too low, as the primary reasons for the limited success to date in developing Taiwan’s small-scale (distributed) solar PV market. These difficulties are compounded by low electricity prices and a mutual dependency that has developed between the government, Taiwan Power, and large energy-intensive industries to avoid any upset to the status quo.

In order to address these problem areas this thesis recommends immediately revising the FIT upwards (to at least NT$12.6 per kWh) in conjunction with the reinstatement of capital subsidies for small to medium investors. Removing administrative and procedural barriers is likewise deemed essential to fostering growth in the local solar PV market and establishing confidence in overall program. A Developmental Framework in the final section of this thesis describes some potential solutions to the more intractable problems slowing the diversification of Taiwan’s energy supply.

1. Introductory Remarks & General Aims 7
1.1 Market Barriers Perspective 9
1.2 Market Transformation Perspective 10

2. Renewable Energy Policy around the World 11
2.1. Feed in Tariffs (FITs) 12
2.2. Renewable Portfolio Standards 15
2.3. Other incentives 17

3. Research Design 19
3.1. Research Structure & Research Questions 20
3.2. Research Methodology 21
3.3. Research Design Limitations 22

4. Part I: Background & Policy Frameworks 24
4.1. Energy Situation in Taiwan 24
4.2. Energy Policy % Projects 28
4.2.1. Framework of Taiwan's Sustainable Energy Policy 28
4.2.2. Act Governing the Development of Renewable Energy 29
4.2.3. Future Directions 36

5. Part II: Market Barriers Perspective 39
5.1. The FIT 39
5.2. Feature's of Taiwan's Solar PV Market 41
5.3. Economics of Solar PV (residential applications) in Taiwan 42
5.4. Taiwan Compared 44
5.4.1. Countries Used for Comparison 44
5.4.2. Financial Support Measures 46
5.5. Lessons from Abroad 51
5.5.1. South Korea 51
5.5.2. Japan 53
5.5.3. Germany & Italy 55
5.5.4. Additional Financial Strategies 55

6. Part III: Market Transformation Perspective 60
6.1. Systemic Barriers 60
6.1.1. Development Features & Systemic Inertia 61
6.1.2. Challenges to the Status Quo 65
6.1.3. Zero Sum Games 67
6.2. Transforming the Market 69
6.2.1. Developmental Framework 69
6.2.2. Implementing Change 75

7. Part IV: Interim Conclusions 78
7.1. Current Barriers & Prospects 78
7.2. Key Recommendations 78

8. References 81

9. Appendices 85
9.1. Appendix A 85
9.2. Appendix B 86
9.3. Appendix C 87

Bureau of Energy (BOE) 2011, Renewable energy FIT rates for 2011 (100年度各類別 再生能源躉購費率), Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan (ROC), viewed 2 February 2011: http://www.moeaboe.gov.tw/Policy/Renewable/news/SENewsDetail.aspx?serno=01068&TYPE_KIND=News

Bureau of Energy (BOE) 2010a, Energy statistics handbook 2009, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan (ROC).

Bureau of Energy (BOE) 2010b, Adjustment to FIT contract arrangements for solar PV applications (太陽光電躉購費率修正為 [完工日]之措施說明), Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan (ROC), viewed 28 February 2011: http://60.251.181.242/news.asp?date=20101220&idx=1

Castello, S, De Lillo, A, Guastella, S, & Paletta, F 2010, National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in Italy 2009, International Energy Agency Co-operative Program on Photovoltaic Power Systems.

Carbon Trust 2006, Policy frameworks for renewables: analysis on policy frameworks to drive future investment in near and long-term renewable power in the UK, The Carbon Trust and L.E.K. Consulting, London.

CEC 2008, Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of use of energy from renewable sources, Commission of the European Communities, viewed 4 May 2011:
http://ec.europa.eu/energy/climate_actions/doc/2008_res_directive_en.pdf

Durrschmidt, W, van Mark, M 2007, Background Information on the EEG Progress Report 2007, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety, viewed 30 April 2011: http://www.erneuerbare-energien.de/files/english/pdf/application/pdf/eeg_kosten_nutzen_hintergrund_en.pdf

Hsu, C 2009, ‘Commission proposes new energy, emissions taxes’, Taipei Times, October 20, p.1.

Huang, Y, Bor, J, Peng, C 2010, ‘The long-term forecast of Taiwan’s energy supply and demand: LEAP model application’, Energy Policy, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.10.023

International Energy Agency (IEA) 2010a, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications: Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries Between 1992 and 2009, Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS), viewed 10 November 2010: http://www.iea-pvps.org/fileadmin/dam/public/report/statistics/tr_2009_neu.pdf

International Energy Agency (IEA) 2010b, Statistics: CO2 emissions from fuel combustion highlights 2009 edition, viewed 9 August 2009: http://ccsl.iccip.net/co2highlights.pdf

International Energy Agency (IEA) 2010c, Key world energy statistics 2009, viewed 9 August 2009: http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2009/key_stats_2009.pdf

International Energy Agency (IEA) 2008, Deploying renewables: principles for effective policies, viewed 4 May 2011: http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2008/DeployingRenewables2008.pdf

International Energy Agency (IEA) 2003, Creating markets for energy technologies, OECD/IEA.

Jacobsson, S, Bergek, A, Finon, D, Lauber, V, Mitchell, C, Toke, D, & Verbruggen, A 2009, ‘EU renewable energy support policy: faith or facts?’, Energy Policy, 37, pp. 2143 – 2146.

Liou, H 2010, ‘Policies and legislation driving Taiwan’s development of renewable energy’, Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 14, pp.1763-1781.

Loa, L 2010, ‘Danger to nuclear power plant sparks war of words’, Taipei Times, 23 September, p.3.

Mendonca, M, Jacobs, D, Sovacool, B 2010, Powering the green economy: the feed-in-tariff handbook, Earthscan, London.

Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) 2011a, Draft Amendments for Renewable Energy Installations Approvals Process (再生能源發電設備認定辦法修正草案總說明), Taiwan (ROC), viewed 26 March 2011:
http://60.251.181.242/09920091230.pdf

Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) 2011b, Economic growth rate by industry, Department of Statistics, Taiwan (ROC), viewed 26 March 2011: http://2k3dmz2.moea.gov.tw/gnweb/English/Indicator/wFrmEnIndicator.aspx

Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) 2010, Renewable energy policy directions, decision making, and implementation (再生能源之政策方向,決策流程及執行情形), Taiwan (ROC), unpublished report, 23 December 2010.

Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) 2009, Act Governing the Development of Renewable Energy (再生能源發展條例), Taiwan (ROC).

Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) 2008, Framework of Taiwan’s Sustainable Energy Policy, Taiwan (ROC), viewed 8 July 2010: http://www.moea.gov.tw/Mns/english/content/ContentLink.aspx?menu_id=196&sub_menu_id=3886

Ragwitz, M, Held, A, Resch, G, Faber, T, Huber, C, & Haas, R 2006, Monitoring and evaluation of policy instruments to support renewable electricity in EU member states, Fraunhofer Institute Systems and Innovation Research, Frieberg, viewed 4 May 2011:
http://www.erneuerbare-energien.de/files/erneuerbare_energien/downloads/application/pdf/isi_zwischenbericht.pdf

REN 21 2010, Renewables 2010 global status report, Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century, viewed 4 May 2011: http://www.ren21.net/Portals/97/documents/GSR/REN21_GSR_2010_full_revised%20Sept2010.pdf

Taipei Times 2010, ‘Activists mull coming of age of nuclear power’, 10 September, p.3.

Taiwan Power Corporation 2010, Taiwan Power electricity procurement requirements (台電力股份有限公司再生能源電能收購作業要點), viewed 28 February 2011: http://www.taipower.com.tw/TaipowerWeb//upload/files/14/main_3_1_9_2.pdf

Tan, J 2010, ‘InfraVest Wind Power to leave Taiwanese market’, Taipei Times, February 26, p.12.

Yamamoto, M 2010, National survey report of PV power applications in Japan 2009, International Energy Agency Co-operative Program on Photovoltaic Power Systems.

Yoon, K 2010, National survey report of PV power applications in Korea 2009, International Energy Agency Co-operative Program on Photovoltaic Power Systems.

Wang, F 2009, ‘Premier Denies Timetable Exists for Energy Tax’, Taipei Times, 21 October, p.1.

Wang, K 2006, ‘The de-regulation of Taiwan’s electricity supply industry’, Energy Policy, 24(16), pp.2509-2520.

Wissig, L 2010, National Survey Report of PV Power Applications in Germany 2009, International Energy Agency Co-operative Program on Photovoltaic Systems.

On-line resources:

Bureau of Energy, Ministry of Economic Affairs (homepage), http://www.moeaboe.gov.tw/Default.aspx?group=2

Bureau of Energy, Ministry of Economic Affairs (Act Governing the Development of Renewable Energy information portal), http://www.moeaboe.gov.tw/Policy/Renewable/default.html

Taiwan Power Corporation,
http://www.taipower.com.tw/indexE.htm

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