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研究生:張雅嵐
論文名稱:成人共讀策略對兒童繪本閱讀理解歷程影響之眼動研究
論文名稱(外文):Effects of adult interactive strategies on young children’s reading comprehension: an eye movement study
指導教授:蔡介立蔡介立引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:幼兒教育所
學門:教育學門
學類:學前教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:140
中文關鍵詞:兒童繪本閱讀繪本共讀策略閱讀理解層次眼動
外文關鍵詞:shared book readinginteractive strategycomprehension leveleye movements
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繪本共讀對學前及低年級兒童而言,因可同時增加兒童閱讀的經驗以及閱讀能力,故十分受到重視。過去文獻亦指出成人與兒童進行繪本共讀,確實能促進兒童的讀寫萌發能力,惟成人運用何種策略的助益較大,尚未有結論。閱讀最重要的目的在理解,然過往繪本共讀研究的焦點主要集中於繪本共讀對聲韻覺識等解碼能力的效果,較少觸及繪本共讀對兒童理解能力的影響,更少討論推論理解等較高層次的理解歷程,是否會影響兒童在繪本共讀時的表現。
本研究旨在探究成人不同的共讀策略以及不同閱讀理解層次的內容,是否會對兒童繪本閱讀歷程產生影響?實驗一操弄提問式與評述式兩種共讀策略,並以眼動儀(Eye Tracker)觀察記錄大班與小一兒童在共讀繪本時的眼動表現。結果顯示提問式策略對大班兒童注視目標圖區的引導功能較評述式策略強,但評述式策略則較提問式策略更能引導兒童凝視目標字區。大班兒童在不同策略時的眼動與語音對應性,在不同區域的差異相反,顯示圖畫與文字兩種區域,在繪本閱讀的歷程中,可能扮演不同的角色、提供不同的訊息。
實驗二進一步將成人與兒童的互動內容分為文義與推論理解兩不同閱讀理解層次,討論不同的共讀策略及閱讀理解層次對小一兒童的繪本共讀是否有所影響。結果同樣發現提問式策略可引導兒童注視目標圖區,而評述式策略則有助兒童凝視目標字區。在不同閱讀理解層次的影響上,則發現推論理解層次時,評述組兒童注視目標圖區時間高於文義理解;而文義理解層次的內容,對引導提問與評述兩組兒童注視目標字區的幫助則高於推論理解層次。惟語音對應凝視時間的指標,反映出評述組兒童目標字區推論理解的對應凝視比例高於文義理解,與凝視時間比例之策略差異相反。
評述組兒童在推論理解層次的內容時,凝視目標圖區的時間比例顯著高於文義理解,在文字區域文義理解高於推論理解的差異亦達顯著,顯示不同層次的閱讀理解內涵,確實會影響兒童看圖看文的眼動表現,故推知圖畫與文字兩區域,其資訊本質並不相同。而推論理解在目標字區的語音對應凝視比例高於文義理解的結果,則代表推論理解較文義理解更能引導兒童在繪本共讀時的注意力,並有機會使兒童可整合圖畫與文字兩類資訊。
文獻指出單純聆聽成人唸誦繪本內容,不針對內容加以明確的引導與互動,並不會對兒童的讀寫萌發能力有顯著的幫助。本研究進一步發現成人運用提問與評述等不同策略,及不同閱讀理解層次的互動內容,可分別引導兒童注視繪本畫面上不同的區域,使兒童在閱讀歷程中獲取推論或文義理解所需之不同訊息。因此,進行繪本共讀的活動時,成人或教育工作者應選擇適合的互動策略、設計不同理解層次的互動內容,並依據不同的互動與教學目的交替使用,以使繪本共讀對兒童的閱讀理解歷程發揮最大的功效。
Since benefits of shared book reading (SBR) to young children’s emergent literacy have been manifested, numerous studies have emphasized the advantage of SBR to children’s decoding ability (e.g. phonological awareness).Even though the most important purpose of reading is comprehension, research which focus on the effects of SBR to comprehension ability is still scarce, and especially so for studies which discuss the relationship between SBR and higher level comprehension ability (e.g. inferential comprehension). The influence of adult’s interactive strategies on children’s reading comprehension is also indistinct too. The present study investigated the effects of adults’ interactive strategies and comprehension levels of interactive content on children’s comprehension process during SBR, which was reflected by the eye movement data.
Experiment 1 compared reading behaviors of preschool and first-grade children under question versus comment strategies. Experiment 2 explored the effects of comprehension level of adult’s interactive content and interactive strategies on first-graders. Results of experiment 1 and 2 revealed that the question strategy drew preschoolers’ attention to target picture area (critical for story comprehension), while the comment strategy guided it to word area. Moreover, children paid more attention to target picture area in the inferential condition than the literal one and the data on target word showed the opposite pattern. Results confirm that adults’ explicit references during SBR can attract children’s attention to different areas on shared book, and thus enhance respective aspects of the comprehension process. Therefore, using interactive strategies and interactive content with high comprehension level contribute more to children’s literacy and comprehension development than simply reading to them.
第一章緒論..............................1
第一節 研究動機與目的.....................1
第二節 研究問題..........................5
第三節 名詞釋義..........................7
第二章 文獻探討..........................10
第一節 讀寫萌發..........................11
第二節 繪本與讀寫萌發.....................13
第三節 繪本共讀與讀寫萌發..................15
第四節 繪本共讀策略與讀寫萌發 ...............20
第五節 繪本共讀與閱讀理解..................23
第六節 繪本共讀策略與閱讀理解...............28
第七節 兒童繪本閱讀歷程的眼動研究............32
第八節 小結..............................44
第三章 實驗一 互動策略對大班與小一兒童繪本閱讀理解歷程的影響...46
第一節 實驗目的...........................46
第二節 研究對象...........................47
第三節 實驗設計與實驗材料...................47
第四節 實驗設備與測驗工具...................49
第五節 實驗程序...........................50
第六節 研究資料與分析......................53
第七節 實驗結果...........................60
第八節 討論與小結..........................73
第四章 實驗二 互動策略與互動內容理解層次對小一兒童繪本閱讀理解歷程的影響 78
第一節 實驗目的...........................78
第二節 研究對象...........................79
第三節 實驗設計與實驗材料...................79
第四節 實驗設備與測驗工具...................81
第五節 實驗程序...........................82
第六節 研究資料與分析.......................82
第七節 實驗結果...........................84
第八節 討論與小結.........................101
第五章 結論與建議.........................106
第一節 研究結論...........................106
第二節 研究限制...........................109
第三節 研究價值與重要性.....................110
第四節 建議...............................112
參考書目..................................115
附件一 實驗一共讀語句內容一覽表...............123
附件二 實驗一家庭閱讀環境問卷 ................124
附件三 實驗一理解測驗內容一覽表...............127
附件四 實驗二共讀語句內容一覽表...............128
附件五 實驗二理解測驗內容一覽表...............129
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