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研究生:李曼瑋
研究生(外文):Lee, Man Wei
論文名稱:《出航》中的旅行敘事
論文名稱(外文):Travel Discourse in The Voyage Out
指導教授:胡錦媛胡錦媛引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hu, Chin Yuan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:英國語文學研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:出航維吉尼亞.吳爾芙德勒茲葛塔力柏格森
外文關鍵詞:The Voyage OutWoolf, VirginiaGilles DeleuzeFelix GuattariHenri Bergson
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《出航》(The Voyage Out 1915) 是維吉尼亞.吳爾芙 (Virginia Woolf) 的第一本小說。就像女主角從倫敦出發航向南美一個虛構的異地一樣,吳爾芙似乎也從此開始了她做為作家的旅行。女主角瑞秋.凡瑞斯 (Rachel Vinrace) 從一個懵懂的中產階級女兒,一腳踏入了未知的大海航程。在乘載著她橫跨大西洋的商船上,瑞秋體驗了與原本平靜生活截然不同的衝擊。當她走向聖塔瑪莉納 (Santa Marina),她眼中儘是對這個熱帶異鄉的熱情與渴望。在那裡,瑞秋依著自己的步伐/速度與其他的角色相遇、相識、相知,開啟了自己對這個世界的視野。她與泰倫斯.希威特 (Terrence Hewet) 相戀、決定互許終生。然而,一場熱病讓瑞秋在返鄉之前過世。她的靈魂,似乎就此沒入深不見底的大海之中(Woolf 398)。
  本論文以德勒茲 (Gilles Deleuze) 與葛塔力 (Felix Guattari) 的著作《千高臺:資本主義與精神分裂》(A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia) 中所探討的旅行路線:固著路線 (rigid line)、可彎路線 (supple line)、逃逸路線 (line of flight) 來討論《出航》中角色之間的人際互動。從不同角色交疊橫越的旅行路線中,自我與他者的關係也不斷地在不同的情境之中形塑與消融。《出航》不再只是瑞秋個人的生命成長旅行經驗,更是眾多角色相互影響、體驗、與改變的廣大場域。小說裡表現了柏格森 (Henri Bergson) 所主張的種類差異 (differences in kind),以及從中所發展出的個體性 (singularity) 價值與溝通的可能性。瑞秋的遊牧旅行軌跡,使她與泰倫斯之間擁有了超越性別差異的結合。在這種動態、開放的情境之下,瑞秋死亡之前的幻想與精神錯亂似乎象徵著逃逸路線所帶出的蛻變:在精神高度凝縮之下,全然的開放、專注於當下、無限接近真我。
不同的路線象徵不同旅行者的選擇以及路線背後的意義。本論文分成五章來探討《出航》裡交織複雜的旅行路線:第一章介紹《出航》的相關評論與背景,並且說明本論文所使用的理論架構;第二章以固著路線和可彎路線的討論為主,帶出絕對差異 (absolute difference) 的意義與價值;第三章探討真正溝通的可能性以及瑞秋從可彎路線出發的旅行軌跡;第四章從瑞秋的旅行起點到旅行終點,以逃逸路線的角度,找出詮釋她的死亡的另一種面向;第五章以瑞秋與泰倫斯之間的「愛」作結,帶出小說最終以死亡來表現生命的苦難與持續性。

The Voyage Out (1915) is Virginia Woolf’s first novel. Like the heroine’s voyage from London to a fictional town in South America, Woolf has begun her travel as a writer since then. Rachel Vinrace, a daughter of a middle class merchant, plunges into the sea voyage out to the unknown world. In the cargo boat that takes her across the Atlantic, contrary to her original quiet life in Richmond, the interactions with the other crew make a profound impact on Rachel. Stepping onto the soil of Santa Marina, she is full of passion and has a thirst for this tropical foreign land. Here, Rachel encounters, and becomes acquainted and intimate with the other characters. She and Terrence Hewet fall for each other and decide to spend the rest of their lives together. However, a serious fever carries her off on the verge of her return trip. Rachel’s soul seems to “curl up at the bottom of the sea” (Woolf 398).
The thesis intends to explore the interactions among the characters in The Voyage Out with the travel lines (rigid line, supple line, and lines of flight) discussed in Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari’s A Thousand Plateaus. From the intertwining travel lines of the characters, the relation between the self and the other is constantly constructing and blurring. The Voyage Out is not only the bildungsroman of Rachel but also a vast field for the characters to interact, experience, and become. The novel reveals the concept of differences in kind explored by Henri Bergson and the value of singularity and possibility of communication developed by Bergsonian ontology. Rachel’s nomadic travelling trajectory allows her to form a kind of union with Terrence that is beyond the limitation of gender difference. Under this dynamic and open circumstance, the deliriums and dreams before her death seem to suggest her becoming generated from the lines of flight: in the intensity of her spirit, she is open to the other, focuses on the present, and approaches to the primordial pure state.
The thesis is divided into five chapters to investigate the complicated travel lines in The Voyage Out: Chapter I introduces the background of The Voyage Out and its literature reviews, and the theoretical approaches used in the thesis will also be illustrated; Chapter II concentrates on the discussion of the effect of the rigid line and the supple line in The Voyage Out and develops the meaning of absolute difference; Chapter III looks for the possibility of true communication and the orbit of Rachel’s voyage launched from the supple line; Chapter IV begins with Rachel’s point of departure and her point of arrival in order to form another dimension of her death, contrasted with traditional interpretation with the discussion of the lines of flight; Chapter V concludes with the love between Rachel and Terrence and reveals the suffering and continuity of life that the novel tries to display through death.

Acknowledgement...iii

Chinese Abstract...vi

English Abstract...vii

Chapter I Introduction...1
1. The Voyage Out...3
2. Literature Reviews...4
3. Theoretical Approach...7
Movements in Space / Movements in Duration...8
The Actual / The Virtual...11
Lines...13
The Creation of Being...14
4. Organization of the Thesis...17

Chapter II Rigid, Supple, Differences in Kind...20
1. Rigid: Subsuming the Other into One’s Own Territory...21
The Concentric Power...22
An Abstract Machine of Overcoding...23
Failed Communication...25
2. Supple: Appreciating the Other’s Uniqueness...28
A Body without Organs in the First Place...28
Challenge to the Centralized Organism...30
Supple: Encountering the Other...32
Supple, as well as Rigid...33
3. Mobile and Immobile Traveler...35
4. Differences in Kind...38

Chapter III The Virtual Actualized: Mutual Understanding and the Realm of Communion...40
1. Swinging from Rigid to Supple...40
The Warmth of Sensibility Experienced by St John Hirst...40
The Communion between Terrence and Rachel...42
What is "Happiness?"...47
2. The Uniqueness of Rachel...50
Rachel’s Minor Position...51
Female Traveler / Becoming-Woman...53
The Openness of Rachel...55
Creative Autonomy and Music...56
Rachel and Euphrosyne: Being Nomadic...59
3. The Realm of Communion through Emotion and Intuition...61

Chapter IV Nomadic Travel on Lines of Flight...63
1. The Point of Departure and the Point of Arrival...63
Leaving London: the Suspicion of Imperialism...63
Where does Rachel Sail to?...64
2. Rachel’s Death...69
A Tragic End or an Extension of Her Sea Voyage?...69
From Lines of Flight to Affirmative Becoming...72
Rachel’s Dreams and Deliriums...75
Antigone’s Renown...81
On the Day that Rachel Dies...83

Chapter V Conclusion...86
1. The Love between Rachel and Terrence...86
2. The Continuity of Life...88

Works Cited...92


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