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研究生:陳姿妤
研究生(外文):Chen, Tzu Yu
論文名稱:電子廢棄物貿易之國際法規適用問題研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of applicable international law on e-waste trade
指導教授:施文真施文真引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:國際經營與貿易研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:貿易學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:電子廢棄物國際貿易巴塞爾公約WTO貨品貿易原則
外文關鍵詞:E-wasteInternational tradeThe Basel ConventionWTO
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隨著時代的發展,電子產品已成為人類生活不可或缺的科技產物,而技術不斷更新的結果導致電子產品的汰舊換新速度加快,產生大量的電子廢棄物(E-waste)。而因為電子廢棄物仍具有高經濟利益,國際間之貿易行為增加,又,因電子廢棄物之再利用、回收及拆解等過程均會對環境造成很大的危害,其高汙染性也引起國際重視。

因電子廢棄物貿易之高經濟性及高汙染性,應適用國際法規以完整規範,目前國際間管制電子廢棄物之法規有二:一為針對環境層面之巴塞爾公約(Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal),另一為針對貿易自由化之WTO(World Trade Organization)貨品貿易原則。

研究探討後發現,兩國際公約仍然有其無法完整規範之處,而最主要的原因即為電子廢棄物於國際間無統一的分類及定義,分類不明的結果導致法規無法完整適用,電子廢棄物貿易行為無法受到管制。

因此,本論文最後將就電子廢棄物給予分類建議,並且探討若電子廢棄物有適當且明確之分類後,法規之適用性大大提升,始可解決環境面與經濟面的難解問題。

In recent years, electronic products have become more important and indispensable in the human life. With the development of technology, old and used electronic products fall into disuse, so lots of Electronic-Waste (e-waste) has been generated. Because of great economic benefits, the international e-waste trade has turned into a significant issue. In addition, the procedure of re-using, recycling and dismantling e-waste may cause serious damages to the environment. Therefore, the high pollution resulted by E-waste has caught the attention around the world.

Due to the enormous benefits and pollution of e-waste trade, the international law should be applied to stipulate the trade behavior. Currently, there are two international laws controlling e-waste: one is the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and Their Disposal that with regard to environment aspect and another is the World Trade Organization (WTO) goods rules which concerning the trade liberalization. In this research, we find that there are still some shortages about these two laws that lead to the insufficiency of the scope of the laws and difficulty of stipulating the e-waste trade. The main reason is that there is no unified and specific classification and definition of the e-waste. The e-waste will be defined and categorized in this research paper, and then the applicability of the two laws will be significantly improved in order to solve the economic and environmental issues.

Therefore, according to the laws of several countries, we further give a suggestion about the classification and definition of e-waste. After we have the specific classification of e-waste, the applicable laws become useful and accurate so that we can solve the existing problem between environment and economics.

第一章 緒論 - 1 -
第一節 研究背景與動機 - 1 -
第二節 研究目的與流程架構 - 2 -
第三節 研究方法與限制 - 5 -

第二章 電子廢棄物之貿易現況及相關問題 - 6 -
第一節 電子廢棄物之定義及貿易現況 - 6 -
一、 電子廢棄物之定義 - 6 -
二、 電子廢棄物之貿易現況 - 16 -
第二節 電子廢棄物之貿易需求及伴隨之問題 - 18 -
一、電子廢棄物之貿易需求 - 18 -
二、電子廢棄物貿易所伴隨之問題 - 20 -

第三章 電子廢棄物受巴塞爾公約管制之狀況 - 24 -
第一節 電子廢棄物是否屬於巴塞爾公約之管轄範圍 - 27 -
一、 巴塞爾公約之「廢棄物」定義 - 27 -
二、 巴塞爾公約之「有害廢棄物」定義及範圍 - 30 -
三、 電子廢棄物屬於巴塞爾公約之管轄範圍 - 35 -
第二節 巴塞爾公約對電子廢棄物之管制原則 - 37 -
一、 締約國之一般義務 - 38 -
二、 有害廢棄物越境轉移之規定 - 40 -
三、 有害廢棄物越境轉移之非法運輸 - 41 -
四、 國際合作與協定 - 42 -
第三節 電子廢棄物於巴塞爾公約下之現存問題探討 - 43 -

第四章 電子廢棄物於WTO架構下管制之狀況 - 48 -
第一節 電子廢棄物是否屬於WTO之管轄範圍 - 48 -
第二節 WTO對於電子廢棄物之管制原則 - 50 -
一、 GATT第1條最惠國待遇及第3條國民待遇原則 - 50 -
二、 關稅規範 - 53 -
三、 數量限制原則 - 54 -
四、 一般例外原則 - 55 -
五、 技術性貿易障礙 - 57 -
第三節 電子廢棄物於WTO架構下之現存問題探討 - 59 -

第五章 電子廢棄物貿易行為之法律規範探討 - 63 -
第一節 其他可能管制電子廢棄物方法之探討 - 63 -
一、 雙邊、多邊及區域性協定 - 64 -
二、 制定專屬的電子廢棄物國際貿易管制法規 - 66 -
第二節 電子廢棄物適用法規之分析 - 68 -
一、 電子廢棄物分類定義為兩國際公約之關鍵 - 68 -
二、 電子廢棄物於巴塞爾公約及WTO貨品貿易原則下之分類適用 …………………………………………………………………………………………….- 73 -
三、 電子廢棄物之分類建議 - 76 -

第六章 結論 - 80 -

參考文獻 - 84 -

一、中文部分
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3. 牛惠之,「國際環境公約與 GATT/WTO 之潛在衝突:論相關於環境之貿易措施與獎勵性措施之運用與爭議」,《國立臺灣大學法學論叢》,第 28 卷 第 4 期,1999年7月。
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6. 行政院環境保護署,巴塞爾公約及我國廢棄物輸出輸入管理, 2003年12月,網址:http://wm.epa.gov.tw/web/basel-chi-92.pdf。
7. 李宗翰,「巴塞爾公約架構下有害廢棄物越境運送之保險研究」,國立政治大學風險管理與保險學研究所碩士論文(2007)。
8. 施曉恩,張毓欣,「東協-日本總括性經濟合作協定之發展與評析」,國立政治大學國際經貿法學研究中心經貿法訊,第77期,2008年12月23日,網址:http://www.tradelaw.nccu.edu.tw/。
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10. 胡慶山,「有害廢棄物越境轉移的國際法問題-以日本施行巴塞爾公約之相關檢討為例」,《台灣國際法季刊》,第三卷,第四期,2006年12月。
11. 范建得,曹美慧,「巴塞爾公約法律議題發展及有害廢棄物非法越境轉移管控-以台灣經驗為例」,《台灣國際法季刊》,第二卷,第三期,2005年9月。
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14. 高聖惕、李柏翰,「WTO-巴西對自歐體進口翻修胎限制措施案」,貿易救濟爭端解決案例分析,2007年。
15. 張湘蘭、秦天寶,「控制危險廢物越境轉移的巴塞爾公約及其最新發展:從框架到實施」,《法學評論》,第4期,2003年。
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二、英文部分
(一)書籍
1. KUMMER, KATHARINA, TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES AT THE INTERFACE O ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE (1994).
2. Yoshida, Aya & Michikazu Kojima, Transboundary Movement of Recyclable Resources: Current Management System and Practices in Japan, Promoting 3Rs in Developing Countries-Lessons from the Japanese Experience, in INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPING ECONOMICS-JAPAN EXTERNAL TRADE ORGANIZATION SPOT SURVEY, Vol. 30, Ch 7 (Aug. 2008).

(二)期刊
1. Bree, Axel, Free Trade in Waste?, 10 TOURO INTERNATIONAL LAW REVIEW 241 (2000).
2. Brunner, Annick Emmenegger, Conflicts Between International Trade and Multilateral Environmental Agreements, 4 ANNUAL SURVEY OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW 74 (1997).
3. Choksi, Sejal, Annual Review of Environmental and Natural Resources Law: International Law The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal: 1999 Protocol on Liability and Compensation, 28 ECOLOGY LAW QUARTERLY 509 (2001).
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6. Kuschnik, Bernhard, Article: The European Union’s Using Products-Eup-Directive 2005/32 EC Taking Transnational Eco-Product Design Regulations One Step Further, 27 TEMPLE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 1 (2008).
7. Kutz, Jennifer, Comment: You’ve Got Waste: The Exponentially Escalating Problem of Hazardous E-Waste, 17 VILLANOVA ENVIRONMENTAL LAW JOURNAL 307 (2006).
8. Lat, Tanya Karina A., Testing the Limits of GATT Art. XX(b): Toxic Waste Trade, Japan’s Economic Partnership Agreements, and the WTO, 21 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 367 (2009).
9. Lin, Catherine K., Linan Yan, Andrew N. Davis, Article: Globalization, Extended Producer Responsibility and the Problem of Discarded Computers in China: An Exploratory Proposal for Environmental Protection, 14 GEORGETOWN INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW REVIEW 525 (2002).
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11. Pak, Phoenix, Note: Haste Make E-Waste: A Comparative Analysis of How the United States should Approach Growing E-waste Threat, 16 CARDOZO JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE LAW 241 (2008).
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17. Towle, Holly K., Andrew H. Dyer, Michael W. Evans, Article: The European Union Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment: A Study in Trans-Atlantic Zealotry, 31 RUTGERS COMPUTER AND TECHNOLOGY LAW JOURNAL 49 (2004).
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21. Wold, Chris, Multilateral Environmental Agreements and the GATT: Conflict and Resolution?, 26 ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 841 (1996).

(三)GATT及WTO文件
1. United States-Taxes on Automobiles, GATT Doc. DS/31/R (Oct. 11, 1994).
2. Panel Report, Japan-Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages, WTO Doc. WT/DS8/R, WT/DS10/R, WT/DS11/R (July 11, 1996).
3. Panel Report, EC-Measures Affecting Asbestos and Asbestos-Containing Products, WTO Doc. WT/DS135/R (Sept. 18, 2000).
4. Appellate Body Report, EC-Measures Affecting Asbestos and Asbestos-Containing Products, WTO Doc. WT/DS135/AB/R (Mar. 12, 2001).
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6. Appellate Body Report, Brazil — Measures Affecting Imports Of Retreaded Tyres, WTO Doc. WT/DS332/AB/R (Dec. 3, 2007).

(四)其他
1. Anderson, Michael & Jacob Mohs, The Information Technology Agreement: An Assessment of World Trade in Information Technology Products, United States International Trade Commission Journal of International Commerce and Economics, (Jan, 2010), at http://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/journals/info_tech_agreement.pdf.
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7. Cobbing, Madeleine, Toxic Tech: Not in Our Backyard, GREEN PEACE (Feb. 2008).
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9. Electronics TakeBack Coalition, An Issue Briefing Book: How Exporting Toxic Electronic Waste from U.S. Causes Harm Here and Abroad (Feb. 20, 2010).
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13. Sohrabji, Sunita, End of Life: India Attempts to Curb Deluge of E-Waste, IndiaWest.com, (Apr. 1, 2010), at http://www.indiawest.com.
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20. World Customs Organization, Harmonized System Committee 40nd Secession, Updating of the Table Establishing A Correlation Between the Harmonized System and Selected International Conventions (Aug. 28, 2007).

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