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研究生:彭聲揚
研究生(外文):Peng, Sheng-Yang
論文名稱:透過圖片標籤觀察情緒字詞與事物概念之關聯
論文名稱(外文):An analysis on association between emotion words and concept words based on image tags
指導教授:劉吉軒劉吉軒引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liu, Jyi-Shane
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:資訊科學學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:190
中文關鍵詞:情緒分類情緒檢索情緒詞社群網路字詞共現關聯 規則影像與情緒
外文關鍵詞:sentiment classificationsentiment retrievalsentiment wordsword co-occurrenceassociation rulesimage and emotionsocial network
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本研究試圖從心理學出發,探究描述情緒狀態的分類方法為何,
為了進行情緒與語意的連結,我們試圖將影像當作情緒狀態的刺激
來源,針對Flickr網路社群所共建共享的內容進行抽樣與觀察,使
用心理學研究中基礎的情緒字詞與詞性變化,提取12,000張帶有字
詞標籤的照片,進行標籤字詞與情緒分類字詞共現的計算、關聯規則
計算。同時,透過語意差異量表,提出了新的偏向與強度的座標分類
方法。
透過頻率門檻的過濾、詞性加註與詞幹合併字詞的方法,從
65983個不重複的文字標籤中,最後得到272個帶有情緒偏向的事物
概念字詞,以及正負偏向的情緒關聯規則。為了透過影像驗證這些字
詞是否與影像內容帶給人們的情緒狀態有關聯,我們透過三種查詢
管道:Flickr單詞查詢、google image單詞查詢、以及我們透過照片
標籤綜合指標:情緒字詞比例、社群過濾參數來選定最後要比較的
42張照片。透過語意差異量表,測量三組照片在136位使用者的答案
中,是否能吻合先前提出的強度-偏向模型。
實驗結果發現,我們的方法和google image回傳的結果類似,
使用者問卷調查結果支持我們的方法對於正負偏向的判定,且比
google有更佳的強弱分離程度。
This study attempts to proceed from psychology to explore the emotional
state of the classification method described why, in order to be emotional and
semantic links, images as we try to stimulate the emotional state of the source,
the Internet community for sharing Flickr content sampling and observation,
using basic psychological research in terms of mood changes with the parts of
speech, with word labels extracted 12,000 photos, label and classification of
words and word co-occurrence of emotional computing, computing association
rules. At the same time, through the semantic differential scale, tend to put
forward a new classification of the coordinates and intensity.
Through the frequency threshold filter, filling part of speech combined
with the terms of the method stems from the 65,983 non-duplicate text labels,
the last 272 to get things with the concept of emotional bias term, and positive
and negative emotions tend to association rules. In order to verify these words
through images is to bring people's emotional state associated with our pipeline
through the three sources: Flickr , google image , and photos through our index
labels: the proportion of emotional words, the community filtering parameters to
select the final 42 photos to compare. Through the semantic differential scale,
measuring three photos in 136 users of answers, whether the agreement made
earlier strength - bias model. Experimental results showed that our methods and
google image similar to the results returned, the user survey results support our
approach to determine the positive and negative bias, and the strength of better
than google degree of separation.
第一章 緒論..................................................................................................................9
1.1 情緒的定義.......................................................................................................10
1.2 情緒表達...........................................................................................................11
1.3 情緒研究的重要性...........................................................................................11
1.4 動機與目的.......................................................................................................12
第二章 領域知識與相關研究....................................................................................13
2.1 基礎情緒分類...................................................................................................13
2.1.1 心理學對於情緒的歸納與分類................................................................13
2.1.2 透過語料和專家方法進行情緒字詞分類................................................16
2.2 詞意相似度 - 字詞共現計算...........................................................................17
2.2.1 字詞共現指標 (tag co-occurrence index)................................................17
2.2.2 點式交互資訊 (point-wise mutual information) ....................................18
2.2.3 關聯規則演算法 (Apriori Algorithm)......................................................19
2.3 詞幹 (Stemming)..............................................................................................20
2.4 語意差異量表 (Semantic Differential Scale)..................................................21
2.5 影像與情緒.......................................................................................................22
2.6 網路社群作為語料來源...................................................................................24
2.7 小結...................................................................................................................25
第三章 資料分析與模型建立....................................................................................27
3.1 研究架構...........................................................................................................27
i
3.1.1 資料來源 ..................................................................................................27
3.1.1.1 Flickr攝影社群.......................................................................................28
3.1.1.2 決定情緒類別.........................................................................................29
3.1.1.3 Flickr API................................................................................................33
3.1.2 資料前處理................................................................................................33
3.1.2.1 雜訊.........................................................................................................33
3.1.2.3 字詞頻率.................................................................................................34
3.1.2.4 過濾門檻.................................................................................................35
3.1.2.5 詞性標記 POS.......................................................................................35
3.1.3 Stemming by Porter Stemmer....................................................................35
3.1.4 字詞共現計算 ..........................................................................................36
3.1.4.1 兩字詞之關聯:PMI.............................................................................36
3.1.4.2 兩字詞以上之關聯:apriori algorithm.................................................41
3.1.5 文字標籤隱含的情緒偏向,以強度與偏向分類....................................42
3.1.6 四象限的事物概念字詞與情緒關聯........................................................44
3.2 前測問卷與VA model調整:強度-偏向座標..................................................46
3.3 資料庫建置.......................................................................................................47
3.4 決定帶有情緒影像的候選照片.......................................................................49
3.5 圖片情緒偏向排序,以社群參數進行過濾...................................................49
ii
3.6 小結...................................................................................................................50
第四章 實驗結果與評估............................................................................................52
4.1 抽樣...................................................................................................................53
4.1.1 基礎情緒字詞選取與排名抽樣結果........................................................53
4.1.2 考慮詞性變化的抽樣結果........................................................................55
4.2 字詞頻率 tag frequency...................................................................................59
4.2.1 挑選詞頻過濾門檻....................................................................................61
4.2.2 stemming....................................................................................................62
4.3 挑選候選照片...................................................................................................63
4.4照片中標籤字詞分析........................................................................................77
4.4.1縮小範圍、凸顯主題.................................................................................78
4.4.2字詞變化合併.............................................................................................78
4.4.3主流語系.....................................................................................................79
4.4.4 與主題相關、感受性的標籤會被保留....................................................79
4.5 小結...................................................................................................................80
第五章 問卷評估與實驗結果....................................................................................82
5.1 問卷結果總覽...................................................................................................82
5.1.1 分類結果一覽:強度................................................................................83
5.1.2 分類結果一覽:偏向................................................................................84
5.1.3 強度與偏向總覽........................................................................................84
5.3 研究限制...........................................................................................................87
第六章 結論與未來研究............................................................................................89
6.1 研究成果...........................................................................................................89
iii
6.1.1 影像中字詞共現的方法,可得到事物概念與情緒字詞的關聯............89
6.1.2 透過問卷提出新的分類強度-偏向分類模型..........................................89
6.2 以圖像作為情緒引發來源,評估使用者的主觀解讀與反應.......................90
6.2.1 引發情緒偏向的觀察................................................................................91
6.2.2 引發情緒強弱的內容觀察........................................................................91
6.2.3 高頻詞組對於情緒的關聯強度較不明顯................................................91
6.3 未來研究...........................................................................................................92
6.3.1 影像中的語意探索....................................................................................92
6.3.2 情緒詞分類模型的發展............................................................................92
6.3.3 問卷抽樣的照片來源與數量....................................................................92
6.3.4 圖像中的符號意義:................................................................................93
參考文獻......................................................................................................................94
附錄A 高頻字詞的PMI值...........................................................................................98
附錄B問卷圖片與分析.............................................................................................106
附錄D問卷結果.........................................................................................................163
附錄D:情緒與字詞概念關聯研究 前測問卷:...................................................180
附錄E:前測問卷強度平均值.................................................................................184
附錄F:前測問卷偏向值,以100為滿分................................................................185
附錄G:語意量表結果調整過後的偏向-強度model..............................................186
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