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研究生:陳昱心
研究生(外文):Yu-Hsin Chen
論文名稱:不同季節鴨蛋品質及浸漬方式對皮蛋品質影響之評估
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of qualities of duck eggs collected in different seasons and influences of pickling systems on the qualities of pidan
指導教授:譚發瑞
口試委員:黃加成黃書政
口試日期:2011-07-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:鴨蛋皮蛋浸漬季節
外文關鍵詞:duck eggpidanpickleseason
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皮蛋(pidan)為亞洲地區特有之蛋加工品,主要是藉由鹼液作用使蛋白質凝固,並產生特殊風味與顏色。根據文獻指出,優良無裂縫的原料蛋,適當的浸漬溫度及浸漬時間為製造優良皮蛋之基本條件;惟台灣夏季高溫,對產蛋鴨可能產生熱緊迫,導致所產之蛋品質下滑,蛋殼厚度及強度降低。同時,高溫氣候亦會導致浸漬後期皮蛋鹼液過度滲透,進而使得浸漬過程中之皮蛋產生再液化之現象,最終導致台灣熱季皮蛋生產製成率較差。前人曾提出使浸漬液在封閉的容器中混合之法,可減少浸漬時間與提高製成率。故本試驗之第一部分擬探討不同季節下蛋鴨飼料品質與生鮮鴨蛋其品質之差異;第二部分則以洗選後之生鮮鴨蛋,配合定時混合浸漬液以期提高皮蛋之品質與製成率,並比較應用於夏季與秋季所製之皮蛋其特性的差異;第三部分是將混合浸漬液之方法運用於商業規模之皮蛋生產,瞭解是否可改善皮蛋品質及製成效果。
結果顯示,秋季之鴨蛋蛋殼厚度顯著較低 (P < 0.05 ) ,蛋殼強度有較低之趨勢;秋季鴨蛋蛋白中之粗蛋白質含量顯著較低,水分含量有較高之趨勢,可能是因為秋季時蛋鴨所遭受較長期之熱緊迫,導致其蛋的品質較差,且雖然不同場間飼料成分有所差異,但對於生鮮鴨蛋品質較無影響之趨勢。第二部分所備製之皮蛋,其蛋黃pH值差異不大,蛋白pH值於浸漬期前9日最高,其後呈下降之趨勢,而浸漬液混合組於浸漬後期有低於傳統組之趨勢。經30日浸漬後所得之成品於3週之熟成期間,其蛋白pH值呈下降之趨勢,蛋黃pH值則持續上升,而混合組之蛋白凝膠之穿刺度有較高趨勢,而色澤未有太大差異;與傳統浸漬法相較,混合法可提高皮蛋製成率。第三部分商業規模生產之皮蛋,因傳統作法上生鮮原料鴨蛋多未經過水洗,蛋殼表面角皮層未受破壞,而浸漬液中所添加之重金屬可能對製成率之改善有所助益,以至於商業規模生產條件下不同處理組其製成率皆達99%以上。綜合上述,蛋鴨於產蛋時所受長期熱緊迫對於其所產之新鮮蛋品質有負面影響,且可能導致皮蛋製成率不佳,鴨蛋經水洗處理後其製成率較低,但浸漬液若經定時混合處理,將可改善皮蛋製成率以及成品品質。


Abstract
Pidan, also known as preserved egg, hundred year egg, and thousand-year-old egg, is a traditional and popular preserved egg product in Asia. The formation of pidan is caused by the penetration of alkali materials through the egg shell and membrane, which then leads to congealed albumen, solidified yolk, and produces some special colors and flavors. It has been reported that an appropriate temperature for pickling pidan is around 25°C. However, the average ambient temperature in Taiwan during summer and fall seasons is often higher than 30°C. Such high ambient temperature not only cause ducks suffering heat stress and then laid some eggs with poor qualities, but also cause pidan albumen re-liquefy due to the over-penetration of alkali solution during processing. A previous study has proposed a moving of picking solution in a closing system in order to reduce pickling time and improve yield of pidan. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the feeds and fresh duck eggs qualities which collected in different seasons, and (2) to investigate the qualities of pidan which material eggs were collected in different seasons and produced using different pickling systems in order to improve pidan quality and yield, and (3) to apply such mixing method into an industrial-scale production.
The results showed that there were some differences in the nutrition contents of duck feeds which collected from different farms and seasons; however, such difference might not affect the qualities of eggs significantly. Also, egg shell which collected in fall was significantly thinner and tended to have lower shell strength. A significantly lower level of crude protein content was observed in the egg albumen which was collected in fall and was probably because those ducks have been suffering for a long-term heat stress since summer to fall. Less difference in the pH values of yolk was observed between treatments, while the pH values of albumen increased during the first 9 days of picking period, and then decreased. pH value of albumen which using the mixing method tended to be lower than that of samples using the conventional method during pickling period. During the ripening period, pH values of albumen decreased and pH values of yolk increased continuously. The treatment which using the mixing method during manufacturing resulted in a harder albumen gelation and higher pidan yield than that manufactured using the conventional method. Pidan which produced in the commercial-scale preparations and using unwashed eggs as raw materials and with addition of some heavy metals in the pickling solution had stronger egg shells. It led to a reduced penetration of pickling solution, and then resulted in a high yield (all were higher than 99%). Also, less difference was observed between the treatments. In conclusion, ducks which suffered a long-term heat stress would produce poor quality eggs, and eventually resulted in a lower yield of pidan. Applying washed duck eggs as raw materials would reduce yield of pidan, while mixing of pickling solution could increase qualities and yield of pidan.


壹、前言………………………………………………………………………………1
貳、文獻回顧…………………………………………………………………………2
一、鴨蛋之基本介紹……………………………..……………………………..2
二、鴨蛋的組成…………………………………………………………. ……2
(一)鴨蛋蛋白的成分………………….……………………………………3
(二)鴨蛋蛋黃的成分………………….……………………………………5
三、影響禽蛋蛋殼品質之因素…………………………………………………5
(一)品種……………………………………………………………………5
(二)營養……………………………………………………………………5
(三)年齡……………………………………………………………………5
(四)環境與熱緊迫…………………………………………………………6
四、皮蛋之製造…………………………………………………………………6
(一)製作方法………………………………………………………………7
(二)皮蛋加工中製造原料之角色功能……………………………………7
(三)蛋白凝膠之原理………………………………………………………9
(四)皮蛋顏色變化………………………………………………………10
(五)蛋殼…………………………………………………………………11
(六)良好皮蛋之製造關鍵………………………………………………12
(七)優質皮蛋規範………………………………………………………13
五、皮蛋中的金屬添加物………………………………………………………13
(一)鉛……………………………………………………………………14
(二)銅……………………………………………………………………14
(三)鋅……………………………………………………………………14
參、材料與方法………………………………………………………………………15
一、蛋鴨飼料分析………………………………………………………………15
二、生鮮原料鴨蛋品質分析……………………………………………………16
三、皮蛋製備……………………………………………………………………18
四、商業生產規模皮蛋製備……………………………………………………19
五、統計分析……………………………………………………………………20
肆、結果與討論………………………………………………………………………21
一、蛋鴨飼料分析………………………………………………………………21
二、生鮮原料鴨蛋品質分析……………………………………………………26
三、皮蛋浸漬期間之變化………………………………………………………33
四、熟成期間之變化……………………………………………………………35
五、商業生產規模皮蛋製備……………………………………………………52
伍、結論………………………………………………………………………………66
陸、參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………67
柒、誌謝………………………………………………………………………………72


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