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研究生:吳錫勳
研究生(外文):Hsi-Hsun Wu
論文名稱:飼糧中添加β-1,3-1,6聚葡萄糖對兔繁殖性能、免疫力及抗球蟲能力之影響
論文名稱(外文):Dietary β-1,3-1,6-glucan supplementation on reproductive performance, immunity and coccidia resistance of rabbit
指導教授:余碧余碧引用關係
口試委員:邱文石顏宏達廖宗文
口試日期:2011-07-15
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:繁殖性能β-聚葡萄糖免疫力
外文關鍵詞:RabbitReproduction performanceβ-glucanImmunity
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本研究旨在探討飼糧中添加β-聚葡萄糖,對紐西蘭白兔繁殖性能、免疫力及抗球蟲能力之影響。首先測定紐西蘭白與雷克斯母兔懷孕至泌乳期間血液生化值之變化,測定結果顯示,兩種母兔血清中總蛋白質、膽固醇及磷含量均在懷孕期第27天時達顯著(P<0.05)最低。紐西蘭白母兔血清中鈣與三酸甘油酯含量於泌乳期第24天顯著(P<0.05)最低,且其血糖及總蛋白質含量在哺乳期第24天顯著(P<0.05)較雷克斯母兔為低。紐西蘭白母兔之丙胺酸轉胺酶、天門冬酸轉胺酶、肌酸激酶及乳酸脫氫酶活性隨著懷孕天數的增加與泌乳的開始而顯著(P<0.05)提高,雷克斯母兔之變化亦呈現相同趨勢但程度不若紐西蘭白母兔劇烈。試驗二測定經產與初產紐西蘭白母兔於懷孕末期至泌乳期間內泌素與血液生化值之變化,測定結果顯示,母兔血清中之激腎上腺皮質激素、皮質醇及助孕素均以懷孕期第28天顯著(P<0.05)最高;雌二醇和助孕素則以哺乳期第4天顯著(P<0.05)最低 ,血清中總蛋白質、白蛋白、膽固醇與三酸甘油酯含量皆以懷孕期第28天顯著(P<0.05)最低。試驗三探討飼糧中添加β-聚葡萄糖,對紐西蘭白兔繁殖性能與免疫力之影響。其結果顯示,飼糧中添加β-聚葡萄糖對母兔繁殖性能無顯著影響。添加0.128% β-聚葡萄糖組於試驗初期(懷孕期14-28天)之採食量顯著(P<0.05)低於對照組,但適應後在泌乳期則無顯著差異。添加0.064%β-聚葡萄糖可顯著(P<0.05)抑制懷孕後期的遲發型免疫反應,並可顯著(P<0.05)提升泌乳後期母兔血液中IgM及IgG濃度。其離乳仔兔周邊血液淋巴球次群CD4+比例以飼糧添加0.064% β-聚葡萄糖組顯著(P<0.05)最高。各組母兔之血清中三酸甘油酯及膽固醇均以懷孕期第28天顯著(P<0.05)最低。未酯化脂肪酸則隨著懷孕期的延長與泌乳的開始而顯著(P<0.05)上升。試驗四探討飼糧中添加β-聚葡萄糖,對紐西蘭白兔抗球蟲能力之影響。結果顯示,添加初期,飼糧中添加0.064% β-聚葡萄糖相較於抗球蟲藥(lasalocid sodium)並無降低生長兔採食量之副作用。生長兔經球蟲挑戰試驗(3.0×105芽孢化蟲卵)後,除添加抗球蟲藥(robenidine hydrochloride)之處理組外,均顯著(P<0.05)降低採食量與日增重,但添加0.064% β-聚葡萄糖處理組之採食量在挑戰試驗後仍顯著(P<0.05)高於添加抗球蟲藥lasalocid sodium組。飼糧中添加β-聚葡萄糖,具有提升兔免疫力及取代抗球藥之潛力。

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary β-1,3-1,6-glucan supplementation on the reproductive performance, immunity and the resistance to coccidiosis of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. The change of blood biochemical values of NZW and Rex does from late gestation to lactation period was measured first. The results showed that the serum total protein, cholesterol and phosphorous concentration significantly (P&lt;0.05) decreased at 27th day of gestation for the two breeds. Serum calcium and triacylglyceride concentration of NZW does were significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower at 24th day of lactation. The serum glucose and total protein concentration of NZW does were significant (P&lt;0.05) lower than Rex does. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity of NZW does were significantly (P&lt;0.05) increased with the progression of gestation and lactation. The change of Rex does was not as higher as NZW does but showed the same pattern. The endocrine and blood biochemical values of multiparous and primiparous NZW breeding does were measured in the second trial. The result showed serum ACTH, cortisol and progesterone were highest at 28th day of gestation. Estrodiol and progesterone were significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower at 4th day of lactation. Serum total protein, albumin, total cholesterol and triacylglyceride were significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower at 28th day of gestation. The effects of dietary β-1,3-1,6-glucan supplementation on reproductive performance and immunity of NZW rabbits was assessed in trial 3. Dietary supplementation of β-1,3-1,6-glucan showed no effect on reproductive performance of NZW does. 0.128% β-1,3-1,6-glucan supplementation significantly (P&lt;0.05) decrease the feed intake compared with the control group at the first inclusion period (14th day of gestation to 28th day of lactation) but without significant difference after adaptation at lactation period. Dietary supplementation of 0.064% β-1,3-1,6-glucan significantly inhibited (P&lt;0.05) delayed-type immune reaction at late gestation period. It also found significantly (P&lt;0.05) increased serum IgM and IgG concentrations at the late lactation period. Percentage of peripheral lymphocyte subset CD4+ for weanling pups was significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher (P&lt;0.05) for 0.064% β-1,3-1,6-glucan supplementation group. Serum triacylglyceride and cholesterol concentration of all treatments were (P&lt;0.05) significantly lower at 28th day of gestation. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acid was increased with the progression of gestation and lactation for all treatments. Trial 4 investigates the effect of dietary β-1,3-1,6-glucan supplementation on the resistance of coccidiosis for NZW rabbits. Dietary β-1,3-1,6-glucan supplementation showed no adverse effect on feed intake compared with the inclusion of coccidostatics (lasalocid sodium) at the beginning of inclusion. The feed intake and average daily gain were significantly decreased (P&lt;0.05) for growing rabbits after challenge with 3.0×105 oocysts, except for the group inclusive with coccidostatics (robenidine hydrochloride). The feed intake for the β-1,3-1,6-glucan supplementation group was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) than the lasalocid sodium inclusive group after challenge. The dietary β-1,3-1,6-glucan supplementation has the potential to increase immunity of rabbit and replace the coccidostatics.

頁次
壹、中文摘要 vi
貳、英文摘要 viii
叁、前言 1
肆、文獻檢討 3
ㄧ、兔的動物模式及其特性 3
二、血液生化學測定之重要性 5
三、母兔的內泌素調控 7
四、β聚葡萄糖之來源、結構及特性 12
五、β-聚葡萄糖對動物生理之影響 16
六、β聚葡萄糖對免疫之影響 16
七、現階段兔隻生產所面臨的挑戰 22
伍、試驗部分 28
第一部分:母兔懷孕及哺乳期間血液生化值與內泌素之變化 28
試驗一:母兔懷孕及哺乳期間血液生化值與臨床酵素活性之變化:紐西蘭白與雷克斯兔 28
前言 28
材料與方法 29
結果與討論 30
結論 34
試驗二:母兔懷孕末期至泌乳期間內泌素與血液生化值之變化:初產與經產紐西蘭白兔 41
前言 41
材料與方法 42
結果與討論 43
結論 45
第二部分 51
試驗三、飼糧中添加β-1,3-1,6-聚葡萄糖對紐西蘭白母兔繁殖性能、免疫力及脂質代謝之影響 51
前言 51
材料與方法 51
結果與討論 54
結論 60
第三部分 70
試驗四、飼糧中添加β-1,3-1,6-聚葡萄糖對紐西蘭白生長兔抗球蟲能力之影響 70
前言 70
材料與方法 71
結果與討論 72
結論 75
陸、結論 82
柒、參考文獻 83



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