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研究生:陳汶楊
研究生(外文):Wen-Yang Chen
論文名稱:亞麻油防治花生銹病及其防治機制
論文名稱(外文):Control of peanut rust with flaxseed oil and its disease control mechanism
指導教授:柯文雄柯文雄引用關係
口試委員:安寶貞蔡東纂
口試日期:2011-07-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:植物病理學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:植物保護學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:34
中文關鍵詞:花生銹病Puccinia arachidis亞麻油附著器形成
外文關鍵詞:peanut rustPuccinia arachidisflaxseed oilappressorium formation
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由Puccinia arachidis所引起的花生銹病在全球花生種植區常造成重大的危害,雖然殺菌劑能夠防治花生銹病,但是對人類健康及環境的負面影響已引起高度關注,遂發展防治花生銹病的替代方法成為當前急迫的課題。在此研究中,將15種食用油在高速攪拌下製成乳化油,並測試對防治花生銹病的能力。結果顯示,15種食用油皆能降低花生銹病之發病率及夏孢子堆數,而亞麻油的效果最佳,其次為花生油及小麥胚芽油。2000 ppm亞麻油能夠完全防治花生銹病,即使降低濃度至500 ppm仍能降低50%以上之花生銹病發病率及夏孢子堆數。亞麻油在花生葉片上至少能夠停留16天,仍能有效降低花生銹病發病率及夏孢子堆數。當接種源濃度介於每微升10-40個夏孢子時,亞麻油仍然能有效降低花生銹病發病率及夏孢子堆數。在溫室試驗中,亞麻油在試驗一能夠完全防治花生銹病,而在試驗二可幾乎完全防治。在田間試驗中,兩次的試驗結果皆顯示亞麻油防治花生銹病的效果與殺菌劑-四氯異苯腈一樣好。接種P. arachidis之夏孢子之前塗佈亞麻油仍然能夠有效防治花生銹病,但接種後再塗佈亞麻油則失去其防治效果,顯示亞麻油為保護劑。在玻片或花生葉片上,亞麻油雖然無法抑制P. arachidis之夏孢子發芽,但是能降低其發芽管長度,並抑制形成附著器。因此亞麻油的作用機制為抑制附著器形成,進而阻止病原菌入侵植物組織,達到防治病害的目的。

The rust disease of peanut caused by Puccinia arachidis is a destructive disease of major economic importance in almost all peanut growing areas of the world. Although several fungicides have been found to give good control of the disease, high concern for adverse effects of pesticides on human health and the environment makes the development of alternative methods for disease management an urgent need. In this study, 15 edible oils were emulsified by high speed trituration and tested for their ability to control peanut rust. Result showed that all the edible oils tested were able to reduce the rust incidence and pustule number. Among them, flaxseed oil was best followed by peanut oil and wheat germ oil. At 2000 ppm, flaxseed oil suppressed the disease development completely. Even at 500 ppm, flaxseed oil was able to reduce the rust incidence and pustule number more than 50%. Ability of flaxseed oil to reduce rust incidence and pustule number after being applied to peanut leaves remained unchanged for 16 days, the longest time tested. Flaxseed oil on peanut leaves was very effective in reducing rust disease at the inoculum concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 urediospores/μl. In the greenhouse trials, flaxseed oil at 2000 ppm completely suppressed the rust in Exp. 1 and nearly completely in Exp. 2. In the field trials, flaxseed oil was as effective as the fungicide chlorothalonil in the control of peanut rust in both Exp. 1 and Exp. 2. Flaxseed oil was effective in rust control when applied to peanut leaves before inoculation but not after inoculation, indicating that it functions as a protectant. On glass slide and peanut leaves, flaxseed oil did not inhibit germination, but reduced germ tube length and prevent appressorium formation. Therefore, the mode of action of flaxseed oil is prevention of appressorium formation which in turn prevents the penetration of the rust fungus into the host tissue.

中文摘要……………………………………………………………. i
英文摘要……………………………………………………………. ii
目錄…………………………………………………………………. iv
表目錄………………………………………………………………. vi
圖目錄………………………………………………………………. vii
前言…………………………………………………………………. 1
材料與方法…………………………………………………………. 4
一、供試植物…………………………………………………….. 4
二、病原菌之來源與保存方法………………………………….. 4
三、食用油來源及製備方法…………………………………….. 4
四、食用油對花生銹病發病率及夏孢子堆數目之影響……….. 5
五、不同濃度亞麻油對花生銹病發病率及夏孢子堆數目之影響…………………………………………………………….. 5
六、亞麻油塗佈次數之比較…………………………………….. 5
七、亞麻油在葉片上之殘效性………………………………….. 6
八、孢子濃度對亞麻油防治花生銹病之影響………………….. 6
九、溫室試驗…………………………………………………….. 6
十、田間試驗…………………………………………………….. 7
十一、接種病原菌再塗佈亞麻油對防治花生銹病的影響……… 7
十二、亞麻油對P. arachidis夏孢子之抑制性………………….. 7
十三、亞麻油之殺菌測試……………………………………….. 8
結果…………………………………..……………………………... 9
一、花生銹病及其病原菌之鑑定……………………………….. 9
二、食用油對花生銹病發病率及夏孢子堆數目的影響……….. 9
三、不同濃度亞麻油對花生銹病發病率及夏孢子堆數目的影響…………………………………………………………….. 9
四、亞麻油塗佈次數之比較…………………………………….. 10

五、亞麻油在葉片上之殘效性………………………………….. 10
六、孢子濃度對亞麻油防治花生銹病之影響………………….. 10
七、溫室試驗………………………………..…………………… 10
八、田間試驗………………………………..…………………… 11
九、接種病原菌再塗佈亞麻油對防治花生銹病的影響……….. 11
十、亞麻油對P. arachidis夏孢子之抑制性…………………….. 11
十一、亞麻油之殺菌測試………………………………………… 12
討論…………………………………………………………………. 13
引用文獻……………………………………………………………. 16
表……………………………………………………………………. 20
圖……………………………………………………………………. 30
附錄…………………………………………………………………. 34

表一、不同食用油防治花生銹病之效果…………………………. 20
表二、不同濃度之亞麻油防治花生銹病之效果…………………. 21
表三、塗佈不同次數亞麻油對花生銹病之影響............................. 22
表四、亞麻油在花生葉上殘效性對花生銹病之影響..................... 23
表五、亞麻油防禦不同濃度Puccinia arachidis夏孢子之能力.... 24
表六、亞麻油在溫室防治花生銹病之效果..................................... 25
表七、亞麻油在田間防治花生銹病之效果..................................... 26
表八、接種Puccinia arachidis夏孢子後再塗佈亞麻油對花生銹病之影響................................................................................ 27
表九、亞麻油對Puccinia arachidis夏孢子發芽、發芽管長度及附著器形成之影響................................................................ 28
表十、Puccinia arachidis夏孢子吸收亞麻油後對發芽率、發芽管長度及附著器形成之影響................................................ 29

圖一、亞麻油防治花生銹病之效果................................................. 30
圖二、亞麻油在田間防治花生銹病之效果..................................... 31
圖三、Puccinia arachidis之夏孢子在玻片上的發芽及附著器形成之情形................................................................................. 32
圖四、Puccinia arachidis之夏孢子在葉片上的發芽及附著器形成之情形................................................................................. 33


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