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研究生:黃科蓉
研究生(外文):Ko-Jung Huang
論文名稱:應用於振動能轉換系統之高效率直流-直流升壓轉換器
論文名稱(外文):A High Efficiency DC-DC Boost Converter for Vibration Power Generator System
指導教授:張振豪
口試委員:林泓均劉堂傑
口試日期:2011-07-07
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:62
中文關鍵詞:升壓轉換器脈波寬度調變模式振動能
外文關鍵詞:boost converterPWMvibration power
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近年來我們在綠色能源方面的研究,使無特定標準電池元素的電子產品需求持續地增加,本論文設計與實現一振動能升壓轉換器。其直流-直流升壓轉換器採用具有前饋與回授控制的脈波寬度調變模式(PWM),因此我們所提出的能源收集電路可調整轉換器的工作週期,達到高的轉換效率。

在很多振動能轉電能的例子裡,從整流器輸出的電壓比儲存元件的電壓小很多,因此我們必須將收集到的能源轉成電能再升壓存進儲存元件。電路裡我們採用了前饋控制,此方式大大地改善功率轉換特性,又因為不同電源儲存元件的電壓不盡相同,所以我們要調整轉換器的輸出電壓,進而把回饋控制加入前饋控制直流-直流脈寬調變升壓轉換器內。透過以上敘述的控制方式,實現了一適用於振動能系統之直流-直流升壓轉換器。

本論文所設計的振動能升壓轉換器電路是利用台積電(TSMC)所提供的0.18μm CMOS 1P6M 1.8/3.3V Mixed Signal 製程所設計實現,此晶片面積大小為0.75mm*0.65mm。其工作電壓範圍為1.2V~2.4V,輸出電壓範圍可以控制在3V,其中整體的效率可以維持在89%以上,最高效率達到97.17%。

In recent year, demand in electronic devices without standard battery element continuously increases in the research of energy harvesting devices. This thesis presents a circuit for vibration power generator. The dc-dc pulse width modulation boost converter utilizes a feedforward and a feedback control; therefore, the energy harvesting circuit can adjust the duty ratio of the converter to get high energy conversion efficiency.

In many cases, which convert vibration energy into electrical energy, the output voltage of the rectifier is smaller than that of the storage element. Thus, it must be stepped up to be harvested into the storage element. The method by using a feedforward control into circuit, can significantly improve the performance of this dc-dc power conversion. Since the voltage of the energy storage element can often change, the output voltage of dc-dc converter should be adjusted accordingly. Hence, a feedback control circuit is introduced into the feedforward control of dc-dc PWM boost converter circuit. By using these control methods, a dc-dc boost converter is presented for vibration energy harvesting devices.

This circuit is designed and fabricated with TSMC 0.18μm 1P6M 1.8/3.3V Mixed Signal CMOS technology. The chip size is 0.75mm*0.65mm. In the proposed boost converter, the operation voltage is from 1.2V to 2.4V, and the output voltage can be controlled around 3V. The efficiency is more than 89%, and the highest efficiency is 97.17%.


誌謝 I
摘要 II
ABSTRACT III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
第一章緒論 1
1.1背景簡介 1
1.2研究動機 2
1.3論文架構 3
第二章穩壓器基本架構分析 4
2.1線性穩壓器 4
2.2電荷幫浦 5
2.3直流切換式穩壓器 6
2.3.1升壓轉換器 6
2.3.2降壓轉換器 7
2.3.3升降壓轉換器 8
2.4轉換器導通模式 9
2.4.1連續導通模式 9
2.4.2不連續導通模式 12
2.5切換式轉換器規格 15
2.5.1轉換效率 15
2.5.2線性調節率 17
2.5.3負載調節率 17
2.5.4暫態響應 17
2.5.5輸出電壓漣波 18
2.6切換式控制電路分類 19
2.6.1電壓模式之脈波寬度調變 19
2.6.2限流模式之脈波寬度調變 20
2.6.3電壓模式之脈波頻率調變 21
2.6.4限流模式之脈波頻率調變 22
第三章振動能轉換器介紹 24
3.1 振動能介紹 24
3.2 電能產生器介紹 25
3.3 振動能轉換系統 29
3.4最大功率點追蹤 33
第四章穩壓電路設計與模擬 36
4.1 電路架構分析 36
4.2 運算放大器 39
4.3 比較器 40
4.4 能係參考電壓電路 41
4.5 偏壓電路 43
4.6 鋸齒波產生器 44
4.7 電壓位移緩衝放大器 45
4.8 線性穩壓調節器 46
4.9 功率級 49
第五章電路模擬數據與結果 50
5.1 模擬結果 50
5.2 佈局 55
5.3 規格 57
第六章結論 59
參考文獻 60



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[2]M. Pereyma, “Overview of the modern state of the vibration energy harvesting devices,” in Proc. International Conference on Perspective Technologies and Methods in MEMS Design, May 2007, pp. 107-112.

[3]林宗煜, Design and Implementation of Low Ripple PFM Step-up DC/DC Converter, 國立中興大學電機工程學系碩士論文, 中華民國九十六年七月.

[4]E. Hausler and E. Stein, “Implantable physiological power supply with PVDF film,” Ferroelectrics, vol. 60, pp. 277–282, 1984.

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[6]J. Kymissis, C. Kendall, J. Paradiso, and N. Gershenfeld, “Parasitic power harvesting in shoes,” in Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers, Oct. 1998, pp. 132–139.

[7]http://www.oceanpowertechnologies.com/.

[8]X. Cao and Y.-K. Lee, “Design and fabrication of mini vibration power generator system for micro sensor networks,” in Proc. IEEE International Conference on Information Acquisition, Aug. 2006, pp. 91-95.

[9]http://www.materialsnet.com.tw/DocView.aspx?id=7361

[10]P. Cong, N. Chaimanonart, W. H. Ko, and D. J. Young, “A wireless and batteryless 10-bit implantable blood pressure sensing microsystem with adaptive RF powering for real-time laboratory mice monitoring,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 44, pp. 3631-3644, Dec. 2009.

[11]X. Cao, W.-C. Chiang, Y.-C. King, and Y.-K. Lee, “Electromagnetic energy harvesting circuit with feedforward and feedback DC–DC PWM boost converter for vibration power generator system,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol.22, no.2, pp. 679-685, Mar 2007.

[12]A. Richelli, L. Colalongo, S. Tonoli, and Z. M. Kovacs-Vajna, “A 0.2-1.2V DC/DC boost converter for power harvesting applications,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 24, no.6, pp. 1541-1546, June 2009.

[13]S. Dwari, R. Dayal, L. Parsa, and K. N. Salama, “Efficient direct ac-to-dc converters for vibration-based low voltage energy harvesting,” in Proc. IEEE 34th Annual Conference of Industrial Electronics, Nov. 2008, pp. 2320 - 2325.

[14]H. Shao, C.-Y. Tsui, and W.-H. Ki, “Maximizing the harvested energy for micro-power applications through efficient MPPT and PMU design,” in Proc. 15th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference, Jan. 2010, pp.75-80.

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[17]C. Y. Leung, P. K. T. Mok, and K. N. Leung, “A 1-V integrated current-mode boost converter in standard 3.3/5-V CMOS technologies,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 2265-2274, Nov. 2005.

[18]Y. S. Hwang, M.-S. Lin, B. H. Hwang, and J. J. Chen, “A 0.35μm CMOS sub-1V low-quiescent-current low-dropout regulator,” in Proc. IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference, Nov. 2008, pp. 153-156.

[19]N.-M. Sze, W.-H. Ki, and C.-Y. Tsui, “Threshold voltage start-up boost converter for sub-mA applications,” in Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Electronic Design, Test and Applications, March 2008, pp. 338-241.

[20]Y.-K. Luo, C.-C. Chiou, C.-H. Wu, K.-H. Chen, and Wei-Chou Hsu., “Transient improvement by window transient enhancement (WTE) and overshoot suppression (OSS) techniques in current mode boost converter,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Feb. 2011.

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