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研究生:吳承翰
研究生(外文):Cheng-Han Wu
論文名稱:低壓降線性穩壓器與眼電圖介面系統之探討與實現
論文名稱(外文):A Study of CMOS Low-Dropout (LDO) Regulator and Implementation of the EOG-Based Interface System
指導教授:洪玉城洪玉城引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Cherng Hung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立勤益科技大學
系所名稱:電子工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:線性穩壓器(LDO)眼電圖(EOG)漸凍人溝通系統
外文關鍵詞:Low-dropout regulator (LDO)EOGA.L.S. Communication System
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本論文包含兩個主題:主題一為探討低壓降線性(LDO)穩壓器設計方法,主題二為眼電圖介面系統設計與實現。在第一個主題我們討論電源穩壓器市場的應用與重要性,回顧LDO穩壓器文獻、規格和設計考量,並實際設計一LDO穩壓器。我們依序從規格、功率電晶體、參考電壓電路、誤差放大器與限流保護等電路設計作介紹。亦改善傳統參考電壓電路的啟動電路(Start-up circuit)會因為電源電壓變化造成啟動電路無法關閉之問題。電路模擬皆使用臺積電公司(TSMC) 0.35 m製程,模擬工具為HSPICE。在第二主題主要針對不能自主說話之癱瘓病患實現眼電圖(Electrooculography; EOG)訊號的溝通介面系統。本設計不需使用電腦,病患只需眼球作動:向左看與向右看,就能在短時間內向外界表達自己的意向。本設計方式以階層式架構與自動掃描方式,患者能簡單使用,長時間操作後眼睛不至過於疲乏,整體系統已經實現並測試完成。本雛型系統優點為眼球使用低複雜度,具有低成本優勢和攜帶性佳。
This thesis is comprised of two topics: the first study is the design methodology of the low-dropout (LDO) regulator. The second research is the design and implementation of the EOG-based interface system. We describe the applications and importance of power regulators. Then, the LDO literature, related specifications, and design considerations are reviewed. An example of LDO regulator design is described step by step. We will present the design methodology for LDO regulator from specifications, power transistor, reference voltage circuit, error amplifier, and circuit protection circuit in sequence. For design of reference voltage circuit, a start-up circuit failed by the supply voltage variation is improved in the thesis. This LDO design was simulated using TSMC 0.35 m CMOS technologies by HSPICE. The second part: electrooculography (EOG) based communication prototyping system had been realized for paralyzed patients, who cannot talk and write. Without the utilization of computer, this prototyping system allows the patients by eyes action: look right and look left, to express their meaning to the outside in a short time. Due to the hierarchical and automatic scanning methodologies, the patients use easily and feel not too tired after operated a long time. The experimental system has been achieved and tested successfully. The prototyping system has advantages of low operation complexity, low cost, and portability.
摘要 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- I
Abstract ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- II
目錄 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- III
表目錄 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- VI
圖目錄 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- VII
第一章 緒論----------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1 研究動機----------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.1.1 穩壓器市場應用----------------------------------------------- 1
1.1.2 眼電圖介面系統----------------------------------------------- 3
1.2 論文架構----------------------------------------------------------------- 4
第二章 文獻回顧----------------------------------------------------------------- 5
2.1 穩壓器種類-------------------------------------------------------------- 5
2.1.1 LDO穩壓器---------------------------------------------------- 5
2.1.2 切換式穩壓器-------------------------------------------------- 6
2.1.3 切換電容式穩壓器-------------------------------------------- 7
2.2 LDO穩壓器文獻回顧------------------------------------------------- 9
2.2.1 頻率補償技術-------------------------------------------------- 9
2.2.2 快速暫態響應-------------------------------------------------- 10
2.2.3 電源拒斥比能力----------------------------------------------- 11
2.3 生理訊號之應用-------------------------------------------------------- 11
2.3.1 眼訊號擷取技術----------------------------------------------- 13
2.3.2 眼訊號相關應用----------------------------------------------- 16
第三章 LDO穩壓器特性說明------------------------------------------------- 17
3.1 電路架構與原理-------------------------------------------------------- 17
3.2 規格與設計考量-------------------------------------------------------- 18
3.2.1 輸出電壓差(Dropout voltage)------------------------------- 18
3.2.2 傳輸元件的選擇(Pass element choice)-------------------- 20
3.2.3 靜態電流(Quiescent current)-------------------------------- 23
3.2.4 轉換效率(Efficiency, η)------------------------------------ 23
3.2.5 線電壓調節率(Line regulation)----------------------------- 24
3.2.6 負載調節率(Load regulation)------------------------------- 26
3.2.7 暫態響應(Transient response)------------------------------- 27
3.2.8 頻率響應(Frequency response)------------------------------ 30
3.2.9 電源拒斥比(Power supply rejection, PSR) --------------- 34
3.3 保護電路----------------------------------------------------------------- 38
3.3.1 限流保護(Current-limit protection)------------------------- 38
3.3.2 過熱保護(Thermal-shutdown protection)------------------ 40
第四章 LDO穩壓器電路設計------------------------------------------------- 42
4.1 設計規格----------------------------------------------------------------- 42
4.2 功率電晶體設計-------------------------------------------------------- 43
4.3 極/零點規劃------------------------------------------------------------ 45
4.4 誤差放大器-------------------------------------------------------------- 48
4.4.1 誤差放大器設計----------------------------------------------- 49
4.4.2 誤差放大器模擬結果----------------------------------------- 53
4.5 參考電壓電路----------------------------------------------------------- 58
4.5.1 自我偏壓電路設計(Self-biasing circuit)------------------- 58
4.5.2 自我偏壓電路模擬結果-------------------------------------- 61
4.5.3 能帶差參考電路(Bandgap reference circuit, BGR)------ 62
4.5.4 帶差參考電路設計-------------------------------------------- 66
4.5.5 帶差參考電路模擬結果-------------------------------------- 69
4.6 限流保護電路----------------------------------------------------------- 71
4.6.1 限流保護電路設計-------------------------------------------- 73
4.6.2 限流保護電路模擬結果-------------------------------------- 76
4.7 LDO穩壓器整體模擬------------------------------------------------- 77
第五章 眼電圖介面系統設計-------------------------------------------------- 86
5.1 EOG訊號擷取電路---------------------------------------------------- 86
5.1.1 儀表放大器----------------------------------------------------- 87
5.1.2 帶通濾波器----------------------------------------------------- 87
5.1.3 高通濾波器----------------------------------------------------- 88
5.1.4 非反向放大器-------------------------------------------------- 89
5.1.5 擷取電路實際量測-------------------------------------------- 89
5.2 波形整型電路----------------------------------------------------------- 91
5.2.1 波形整型電路設計-------------------------------------------- 91
5.2.2 波形整型電路實際量測-------------------------------------- 92
5.3 EOG訊號控制電路---------------------------------------------------- 93
5.4 LED顯示介面---------------------------------------------------------- 95
5.5 單級放大器晶片實現-------------------------------------------------- 96
5.5.1 伸縮式差動放大器介紹-------------------------------------- 97
5.5.2 尾電流與增益頻寬積和扭轉率之相關性----------------- 98
5.5.3 具可調整增益頻寬與扭轉率之機制----------------------- 99
5.5.4 模擬與晶片量測結果----------------------------------------- 101
第六章 眼電圖介面系統實體應用-------------------------------------------- 110
6.1 眼電圖介面整體系統實體-------------------------------------------- 110
6.2 實際操作結果----------------------------------------------------------- 112
第七章 結論與未來研究方向-------------------------------------------------- 115
7.1 結論----------------------------------------------------------------------- 115
7.2 未來研究方向----------------------------------------------------------- 117
參考文獻 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 118
作者履歷 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 121

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