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研究生:李明政
研究生(外文):Ming-Jheng Li
論文名稱:具安全性與匿名性的電子商務機制之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Secure and Anonymous Electronic Commerce Schemes
指導教授:阮夙姿
指導教授(外文):Justie Su-Tzu Juan
口試委員:陳健輝謝孫源李維斌杜迪榕簡宏宇劉震昌黃育銘
口試委員(外文):Gen-Huey ChenSun-Yuan HsiehWei-Bin LeeDyi-Rong DuhHung-Yu ChienJen-Chang LiuYuh-Ming Huang
口試日期:2011-01-14
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立暨南國際大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:電子商務電子拍賣強匿名性公平交換零知識證明交易安全
外文關鍵詞:Electronic commerceElectronic auctionStrong anonymityFair- exchangeZero knowledge proofTransfer securit
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近年來,隨著網路技術的普及,越來越多傳統交易透過網路的方式進行運作。然而,網路世界並非面對面進行溝通,因此「身分驗證」成為電子商務中重要的議題。有鑑於此,本論文結合指紋辨識功能,提出一種有效率的生物測定之遠端使用者驗證系統,提供電子商務在身分驗證的應用。

在眾多現行的電子商務類型之中,「電子拍賣」扮演了重要角色。目前電子拍賣可大致分為三類:英式拍賣、荷式拍賣以及封閉式拍賣。然而,透過網路公開投競標,易產生許多隱私洩漏的疑慮。因此,如何提供拍賣者匿名性以及拍賣隱私性,則成為電子拍賣上的重要議題。基於上述原因,本論文首先提出一種植基於離散對數困難度的實用英式拍賣機制;為了提供更多元的電子拍賣應用,本論文結合零知識證明理論,以確保拍賣者擁有更完整的安全性與匿名性,提出一種安全性與強匿名性的電子拍賣機制,藉以提供更實用的電子拍賣應用與環境。除此之外,此電子拍賣機制也將更適用於現今任何型態的電子拍賣中,如:英式拍賣、荷式拍賣、以及封閉式拍賣。

在電子付款機制盛行的現今,結合各種電子付款的研究也陸續提出,例如:結合電子現金(E-Cash)以及網路現金轉帳等。然而,上述皆只確保拍賣單方可獲得金額,並未能真正達成「公平交易」的需求。此外,在現今眾多的電子拍賣相關研究中,針對公平交易的需求,也尚未提出較合適的解決方法。基於此缺失,本論文提出一種具有公平交易特性的嶄新電子拍賣機制。此機制達成兩個目標:(1) 使用數位簽章技術,提供拍賣的安全性,並確保未得標者的拍賣資訊不被洩漏;(2) 結合公平交易機制,設計並使用電子代幣(E-Token)的概念,提昇拍賣雙方在交易前的信心,並確保雙方皆能公平的完成交易。最後,本論文更針對拍賣貨品,進一步將其分為實體貨品與數位貨品兩類做討論,以便提供在現實世界中之電子拍賣機制更為多元的應用。
Recently, with the popularity of the Internet, electronic commerce (e-commerce) covers all transactions conducted through electronic means. However, the communication of network is not face to face, hence "remote user authentication" has become an important part of e-commerce. Therefore, in this thesis, we proposed an efficient biometrics remote user authentication scheme that utilizes ngerprint identi cation function.

The "electronic auction" (e-auction) plays an important role in e-commerce. Generally, e-auction can be categorized into three types: English auction, Dutch auction and sealed-bid auction. However, bidding through network brings a lot of security problems. Hence, how to provide anonymous and bidding privacy is an important issue. For this reason, a practical e-English auction based on the discrete logarithms is proposed. Moreover, in order to provide more practical e-auction scheme, an e-auction scheme with strong anonymity and bidding privacy is also proposed in this thesis. We combines with zero knowledge proof to provide a secure auction environment for bidders. This scheme also applies to any type of existing e-auction scheme, such as: English auction, Dutch auction, sealed-bid auction.

Many e-auction schemes based on various kinds of e-payment schemes are commonly used, for example: e-cash, the network cash transfer accounts and so on. However, the schemes only ensure that the sellers could get the money, which is not "fair-exchange" actually. So far, there are no appropriate methods to solve the fairness requirements in e-auction yet. For this reason, this thesis proposes a novel fair-exchange electronic auction scheme. We divided the novel scheme into two sub goals: (1) adopting digital signature, so that the anonymity and auction behavior of bidder can be guaranteed, (2) using the concept of e-token to promote the con fidence of both parties. So that "fair-exchange" can be achieved. In order to implement this scheme in the real world, this thesis will separately discuss the scheme in entity and digital goods.
Acknowledgement i
Chinese Abstract iii
English Abstract iv
Contents vi
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Research Background and Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Dissertation Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2 Related Work 8
2.1 Preliminary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1.1 Digital Signature Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1.2 Zero Knowledge Proof, ZKP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.1.3 Fair-Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1.4 One-Way Hash Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1.5 Discrete Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.2 Remote User Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2.1 Review of Kim-Lee-Yoo Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2.2 Cryptanalysis of Kim-Lee-Yoo Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.2.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2.4 Review of Khan-Zhang Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2.5 Cryptanalysis of Khan-Zhang Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.2.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.3 Electronic Banking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.3.1 Unmanned Banking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.3.2 Phone Banking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.3.3 Internet Banking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.4 Electronic Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.4.1 Electronic Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.4.2 Electronic Check and Traverler's Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4.3 Electronic Credit Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4.4 Micropayment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.5 Electronic Auction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.5.1 English Auction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.5.2 Dutch Auction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.5.3 Sealed-bid Auction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.5.4 Review of Chang-Chang Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.5.5 Cryptanalysis of Chang-Chang Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.5.6 Review of Chang-Chang Enhanced Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.5.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3 Efficient Biometrics Remote User Authentication Scheme 36
3.1 Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.1.1 Registration Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.1.2 Login Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.1.3 Authentication Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.1.4 Change Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.1.5 Mutual Authentication Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2.1 Security Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2.2 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4 A Practical Electronic English Auction Based On The Discrete Logarithms 43
4.1 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.1.1 Discrete Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.1.2 Group Signature Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.1.3 ID Escrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.2 The Proposed Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.2.1 Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.2.2 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.2.3 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4.2.4 Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4.3 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4.3.1 Security Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4.3.2 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.3.3 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5 Practical Electronic Auction Scheme with Strong Anonymity and
Bidding Privacy 58
5.1 De nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.1.1 Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5.1.2 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.1.3 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5.2 Proposed Scheme for English Auctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.2.1 Registration Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.2.2 Bidding Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.2.3 Decision-of-Winner and Announcement Phase . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.3 Proposed Scheme for Sealed-bid Auction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5.3.1 Registration Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5.3.2 Bidding Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5.3.3 Decision-of-Winner and Announcement Phase . . . . . . . . . . 74
5.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.4.1 Security Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.4.2 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
5.4.3 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6 Practical Fair-Exchange Electronic Auction Scheme 83
6.1 Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
6.1.1 Entity Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
6.1.2 Digital Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
6.2 De nitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6.2.1 Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
6.2.2 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.2.3 Notations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
6.3 The Proposed Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.3.1 Protocol 1: Entity Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
6.3.2 Protocol 2: Digital Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
6.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
6.4.1 Security Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
6.4.2 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
6.4.3 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
6.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
7 Conclusion and Discussion 108
Bibliography 111
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