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研究生:黃竣暉
研究生(外文):Jun-Hui Huang
論文名稱:以FPGA實現適用於多重顯示器之2D/3D轉換技術
論文名稱(外文):A Study of 2D to 3D Conversion Technology for 2D/3D Display and Its FPGA Implementation
指導教授:李佩君李佩君引用關係
指導教授(外文):Pei-Jun Lee
口試委員:楊家輝范育成
口試委員(外文):Jar-Ferr YangYu-Cheng Fan
口試日期:2011-07-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立暨南國際大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:2D /3D 轉換3D影像立體顯示器多種顯示器
外文關鍵詞:3D displayDIBRFPGARow buffer
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  近年來3D影像的相關技術已趨近成熟,各家大廠無不積極地開發新的立體顯示設備。但是眾多廠牌的立體顯示設備規格並不盡相同,彼此之間並無法完全相容。因此發展出一個系統能適用於多種立體顯示器的需求是有必要的。另外,合成3D的影像至少需要使用兩張或兩張影像不同視角的影像,因此常見的方法為使用兩台或是兩台以上的攝影機拍攝不同視角的影像來合成。然而,現行存在的影像或視訊內容皆以二維影像或視訊居多。因此如何設計一個適用於2D 或3D 顯示器,並能即時將2D 視訊轉換為 3D 視訊的系統是本論文探討的課題。
在2D 視訊轉換為 3D 視訊的系統中本論文採用Depth Image Based Rendering(DIBR)利用原始2D 的影像以及深度資訊來產生兩個視角或是多個視角的虛擬影像進行3D的影像合成,進而提供多種顯示器所需的虛擬視角影像個數。為達成適用於多種顯示器的所需影片即時產生與播放,因此本論文以多媒體FPGA為開發平台,適用於不同輸入與多種不同顯示器輸出裝置,建構出一個即時的2D to 3D的硬體系統。在硬體設計上,為了節省記憶體的空間,本論文使用row buffer做為影像暫存的空間,將現有的2D影像內容依據顯示器規格提供所需的3D影像最適當個數的虛擬視角影像。
  本論文使用row buffer作為影像處理的暫存器可以大量地節省記憶體的需求量,其中使用1 row buffer做image warping可以利用影像上一組row的值自動地填補空洞區域,論文中使用2個row交替做image warping是為了能清空buffer裡的值,進而確認空洞產生的位置是否正確。
  從論文的實驗數據結果可發現使用1 row buffer的記憶體需求以及元件使用率最低,相較於其他分法可節省大量的硬體成本。由於使用1 row buffer會自動地使用影像中上一組row的像素來填補空洞產生的區域,因此可省去空洞填補的步驟,如此一來可再節省記憶體所需的需求。

In the recent years, 3D display technology is very popular. Many display manufactures in the world are developing their new display equipments positively. But the contents of display equipments are difficult for difference displays. Now, the video content is popular used by 2D content, 3D display equipments are not universal. An adaptive variable content supply system for variable 3D displays is essential, which can convert the 2D video to 3D video in real time and support the contents to various displays. The system design is the main topic of this thesis.
For the 2D video to 3D video conversion system in this thesis, Depth Image Based Rendering (DIBR) technology is used to convert a color video and its corresponding depth map and to generate the suitable virtual multi-views for various displays. In order to generate and play the video immediately for various displays, the thesis designs a real time 2D to 3D hardware architecture for different video input and video output by using FPGA. To reduce the memory on FPGA, the thesis uses row buffer for video storing and generates the most suitable virtual view images for different displays according to the device content.
To reduce the memory requirement on FPGA, this thesis uses row buffer for the memory design of video processing. When the regions of holes occurred after image warping, the holes are filled by the pixel of the last row of the holes. The proposed system can remove the hole filling module to reduce the memory in FPGA.

誌謝.............................................................................................................................i
中文摘要.....................................................................................................................ii
英文摘要.....................................................................................................................iv
目錄.............................................................................................................................xii
圖目錄.........................................................................................................................xiv
表目錄.........................................................................................................................xvii
第一章、緒論……………………………..………………………………………...1
1.1. 研究與動機 2
1.2. 3D Display 3
1.2.1. stereoscopic 3
1.2.2. Autostereoscopic display 5
1.3. 3D content 6
1.3.1. Multiple 2D 7
1.3.2. 2D + depth 7
1.4. 論文架構 8
第二章、Depth Image Based Rendering (DIBR)概要............................................9
2.1. 多視角虛擬影像產生(Image Warping) 10
2.2. 空洞填補(Hole-Filling) 12
2.3. 3D影像合成(3D Video Synthesiser) 13
第三章、適用於2D/3D顯示之硬體實現.................................................................16
3.1. 文獻回顧 16
3.2. 提出之適用於2D/3D顯示之硬體架構 20
3.2.1.紅藍眼鏡顯示模式 20
3.2.2.裸眼3D顯示模式 21
3.3. 以DE2-70硬體實現2D/3D顯示之系統 29
3.3.1. SOPC及硬體架構 31
3.3.2.系統架構 33
3.4. DE3-260硬體實現2D/3D顯示之系統 33
3.4.1. DVI影像輸入 34
3.4.2.系統架構 37
第四章、實驗結果......................................................................................................39
4.1. 功能測試 39
4.1.1. 2D/3D撥放模式切換 39
4.1.2.紅藍眼鏡模式 41
4.1.3.裸眼顯示模式 42
4.2. 電路設計之元件使用率 43
4.3. 實驗結果與分析 47
4.4. Behavior analysis 58
4.5.結果討論 64
第五章、結論與未來展望.........................................................................................65
5.1. 結論 65
5.2. 未來展望 65
參考文獻....................................................................................................................67


[1]Y. L. Chang. “Algorithm and Architecture Analysis of the Video Signal Conversion for 2D to 3D Video,” National Taiwan University, Ph.D. dissertation, 2007.
[2]蘇俊賢 “應用於互動式立體畫框之高品質2D/3D轉換系統”, 國立暨南國際大學 電機工程學系 碩士論文June 2009.
[3]Wikipedia, ELSA LC glasses:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ELSA_Revelator_IR_LCD_Shutter_Glasses.JPG
[4]Polarized 3D vision method, IZ3D: http://www.iz3d.com/t-3dproductex.aspx
[5]Cheng, Chao –Chung. “ Algorithm and Architecture Design for 3D Video Signal Processing” National Taiwan University . Ph.D dissertation, 2011.
[6]C. Fehn, “Depth-Image-Based-Rendering (DIBR), Compression and Transmission for a New Approach on 3D-TV,” in Proc. International Society for Optical Engineering Conf. Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, vol. 5291, pp. 93–104, CA, U.S.A. Jan. 2004.
[7]W. A. IJsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Stereoscopic Filming Parameters and Display Duration on the Subjective Assessment of Eye Strain,” in Proc. International Society for Optical Engineering Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems, San Jose, CA, USA, pp. 12-22, Apr. 2000.
[8]C. J. Kuo, C. Liao, and C. C. Jin, “Stereoscopic Image Generation Based on Depth Images,” International Conference on Image Processing, Singapore, pp. 2993-2996, Oct. 2004.
[9]施政榮“應用於2D to 3D轉換系統之DIBR快速空洞補償演算法之研究”, 國立暨南國際大學 電機工程學系 碩士論文 June 2010.
[10]A. Criminisi, P. Perez, and K. Toyama, 2004, “Region Filling and ObjectRemoval by Exemplar-Based Image Inpainting,” IEEE Transactions On Image Processing, Vol. 13, No. 9.
[11]工研院影像顯示中心前瞻顯示技術部蔡朝旭經理, “前瞻3D顯示技術,” 平面顯示技術概論投影片, Jan. 2006. (http://tlc.istep.org.tw/ntu/Stream/opto/sec16/前瞻3D顯示技術.pdf)
[12]J. C. Jiang, “LTPS-TFT Digital Cell Library Apply 2D-to-3D Conversion System for Three-dimensional Video,” National Taipei University of Technology, Master thesis, 2008.
[13]Philips Research:
http://www.research.philips.com/technologies/projects/3ddisp.html
[14]J. C. Jiang, “LTPS-TFT Digital Cell Library Apply 2D-to-3D Conversion System for Three-dimensional Video,” National Taipei University of Technology, Master thesis, 2008.
[15]Jssselsteijn W.A I, Seuntiens P.J.H and Meesters L.M.J., “State- of-the-art in Human Factors and Quality Issues of Stereoscopic Broadcast Television”, ATTEST, pp.1-10, pp.37-41, 2002.
[16]http://www.techfresh.net/worlds-largest-3d-display-in-4d-spacetime/
[17]http://graphics.stanford.edu/projects/array/
[18]I.Andorko, P.Corcoran and P.Bigioi,” Hardware implementation of a real-time 3D video acquisition system,” International IEEE Consumer Electronics Society's Games Innovations Conference, ICE-GIC 2009, pp.239 – 245,2009.
[19]Yu-Cheng Fan, Yu-Ting Kung and Bing-Lian Lin, ”Three-Dimensional Auto-Stereoscopic Image Recording, Mapping and Synthesis System for Multiview 3D Display” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, pp.683-686,2011.
[20]Hsin-Jung Chen, Feng-Hsiang Lo, Fu-Chiang Jan, and Sheng-Dong Wu,” Real-Time Multi-view Rendering Architecture for Autostereoscopic Displays,” Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), pp.1165 – 1168, 2010.
[21]ALTERA SDRAM Controller Reference Design http://www.altera.com/support/refdesigns/sys-sol/indust_mil/ref-adi-sdram.html
[22]友晶科技,http://www.terasic.com.tw/tw/
[23]Anaglyph glasses: www.norwebster.com/elektroart/iaaa/dv01.html

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