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研究生:巫振滄
研究生(外文):Wu, Chen-Tsang
論文名稱:具可適性 GOP之 H.264/AVC視訊壓縮平行化處理
論文名稱(外文):Parallel Scheduling for H.264/AVC Video Encoding with Adaptive GOP Determination
指導教授:蕭旭峰蕭旭峰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiao, Hsu-Feng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:資訊學院碩士在職專班資訊組
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:56
中文關鍵詞:可適性GOP平行化排程
外文關鍵詞:Adaptive GOPParallel Scheduling
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與MPEG-2、H.263或MPEG-4相比,H.264/AVC是一個效能更佳的視訊壓縮標準,H.264/AVC可以讓視訊檔案變更小,同時保有相似的品質。一般而言,圖片群(Group of pictures)的內容會影響壓縮效能,所以圖片群的尺寸選取應該要根據不同內容變化達到可適性調整。本篇論文將基於場景變換偵測來動態調整圖片群尺寸。此外我們提出了兩種在幀級(Frame-level)上的平行化排程,由於導入可適性的圖片群尺寸決策,將使每個圖片群的尺寸不再一致,這也將提高平行化排程的挑戰性。根據實驗結果,與固定尺寸的圖片群相比,我們的方法可以得到最佳的比率-失真率(Rate-distortion)。至於平行化處理的效能,我們的方法可以有效地平衡各線程(Thread)間的編碼時間,藉此達到較佳的加速效果。
H.264/AVC is a standard for video compression which obtains better performances relative to former standards such as MPEG-2, H.263 or MPEG-4. H.264/AVC can compress video into smaller size and maintain the similar video quality. In general, coding performance is influenced by the content variations in group of pictures (GOP). Therefore, the GOP size determination is a critical issue for video coding, it should be adaptively adjusted according to different video content variations. This paper exploits this adaptive GOP determination based on scene change detection. Besides we proposes two kinds of frame-level parallel scheduling. Because the application of adaptive GOP determination, i.e. non-constant GOP size, it makes the proposed parallel scheduling more challenging. According to our experimental results, the adaptive GOP determination obtains better rate-distortion than the fixed GOP size. As for the performance of parallel scheduling, the proposed methods can balance the encoding time among threads, and can achieve the better speedup.
摘要 -i-
ABSTRACT -ii-
誌謝 -iii-
CONTENTS -iv-
LIST OF FIGURES -vi-
LIST OF TABLES -ix-
LIST OF EQUATIONS -x-
Chapter 1 Introduction -1-
1.1 Why Variable GOP Size -1-
1.2 Why Accelerate Encoding -1-
1.3 Architecture of Paper -2-
Chapter 2 Related Work - Scene Change Detection -3-
2.1 Pixel-based Method -4-
2.2 Color Histogram-based Method -4-
2.3 Optical Flow-based Method -5-
2.4 Edge-based Method -6-
2.5 DC Image-based Method -8-
Chapter 3 Related Work - Parallel Processing of H.264/AVC Encoding -9-
3.1 GOP-level Parallelism -10-
3.2 Frame-level Parallelism -11-
3.3 Slice-level Parallelism -12-
3.4 MB-level Parallelism -13-
Chapter 4 Proposed Method - Scene Change Detection -15-
4.1 Our Method -15-
4.2 Inter-correlation Measure -17-
4.3 Intra-correlation Measure -17-
4.4 Scene Change Decision -18-
4.4.1 Abrupt Scene Change Detection -19-
4.4.2 Gradual Scene Change Detection -20-
4.5 Experimental Results for Block Size Selection -23-
Chapter 5 Proposed Method - Balanced Frame-level Parallel Scheduling -24-
5.1 Frame Choosing -26-
5.1.1 GOP Ordering -26-
5.1.2 GOP Complexity and Frame Influence -29-
5.2 Thread Choosing -34-
Chapter 6 Experimental Results -38-
6.1 Experimental Environment -38-
6.2 Experimental Results of Adaptive GOP Size -39-
6.2.1 Performance of Scene Change Detection -39-
6.2.2 Performance of Adaptive GOP Size -40-
6.3 Simulation Results of Frame-level Parallel Scheduling -41-
6.3.1 Speedup Analysis -43-
6.3.2 Encoding End Time of Every Frame -45-
6.3.3 Dynamic Buffer Size -48-
6.3.4 Recommended Methods and Conclusions -49-
Chapter 7 Conclusions -53-
REFERENCE -54-
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[2] C. Meenderinck, A. Azevedo, M. Alvarez, B. Juurlink, and A. Ramirez, “Parallel scalability of H.264”, In Proc. of the 1st Workshop on Programmability Issues for Multi-Core Computers, January 2008.
[3] H. J. Zhang, A. Kankanhalli, S. W. Smoliar, “Automatic partitioning of full-motion video”, Multimedia System, Vol. 1, pp.10-28, 1993.
[4] L. Wu, X. Huang, J. Niu, Y. Xia, Z. Feng, Y. Zhou, “FDU at TREC2002: Filtering, Q&A, Web and Video Tasks”, Proc. TREC 2002, NIST, Maryland, USA, 2002.
[5] O. Fatemi, S. Zhang & S. Panchanathan, “Optical flow based model for scene cut detection”, Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol. 1, pp. 470-473, 1996.
[6] R. Zabih, J. Miller and K. Mai, “A feature-based algorithm for detecting and classifying scene breaks”, Proc. ACM Multimedia’95, pp.189-200, San Francisco, CA, 1993.
[7] J. Canny. “A computational approach to edge detection”, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol. 8, No. 6, pp.34-43, Nov. 1986.
[8] B. Yeo, B. Liu, “Rapid scene analysis on compressed video”, IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology 5(6), pp.533-544, 1995.
[9] N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, and K. R. Rao, "Discrete Cosine Transform", IEEE Trans. Computers, pp.90-93, Jan 1974.
[10] I. Ahmad, Y. He, M.L. Liou, “Video compression with parallel processing”, Parallel Computing, Vol. 28, pp.1039-1078, 2002.
[11] Central processing unit, available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_processing_unit
[12] Instruction pipeline, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instruction_pipeline
[13] J. F. Martinez and J. Torrellas, “Speculative synchronization: applying thread-level speculation to explicitly parallel application”, ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, Vol. 36, pp.18-29, Dec. 2002.
[14] K. Shen, L.A. Rowe, and E.J. Delp, "Parallel Implementation of An MPEG-1 Encoder: Faster than Real Time," in SPIE, Vol. 2419, pp.407-418, February 1995.
[15] Chen, Y., Li, E., Zhou, X., Ge, S. “Implementation of H.264 Encoder and Decoder on Personal Computers”, Journal of Visual Communications and Image Representation, Vol. 17, pp.509-532, April 2006.
[16] Ge S., Tian X., and Chen Y.-K., “Efficient Multithreading Implementation of H.264 Encoder on Intel Hyper-Threading Architectures”, Proceedings of IEEE Pacific-Rim Conference on Multimedia, Vol. 1, pp.469-473, 2003.
[17] M. Roitzsch, “Slice-balancing H.264 video encoding for improved scalability of multicore decoding,” in Proceedings of the 7th ACM and IEEE international conference on Embedded software, pp.269–278, September 2006.
[18] S. M. Akramullah, I. Ahmad and M. L. Liou, “A data-parallel approach for real-time MPEG-2 video encoding”, Trans. on Parallel Distributed Computing, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp.129-146, 1995.
[19] T.R. Jacobs, V.A. Chouliaras, D.J. Mulvaney, “Thread-parallel MPEG-2, MPEG-4 and H.264 video encoder for SoC multi-processor architectures”, IEEE Trans.Consumer Electron, Vol. 52, pp.269-275, 2006.
[20] x264 software, available at: http://www.videolan.org/developers/x264.html
[21] Instruction scheduling without pipeline, available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nopipeline.png
[22] Instruction scheduling using a five stages pipeline, available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fivestagespipeline.png
[23] Shanawaz Basith, “MPEG : Standards, Technology and Applications”, available at: http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~nd/surprise_96/journal/vol2/sab/article2.html
[24] JM software, available at: http://iphome.hhi.de/suehring/tml/
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