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研究生:李嘉緯
研究生(外文):Lee, Chia-Wei
論文名稱:使用單軸、雙軸控制輸入之振動式陀螺儀系統
論文名稱(外文):MEMS gyroscope system using single-axis/dual-axis control input
指導教授:陳宗麟陳宗麟引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Tsung-Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:55
中文關鍵詞:微機電陀螺儀狀態觀察器瑕疵補償角速度
外文關鍵詞:Mems GyroscopeState ObserverImperfection CompensationAngular Rate
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本文中的機械結構瑕疵包含:因製造過程造成的機械結構尺寸的誤差(不確定性)、因結構設計造成的陀螺儀動態的非理想性。本文中的感測介面與感測電路瑕疵包含:因光罩擺放所造成的誤差、運算放大器的電壓偏移量、因導線產生的寄生電容。本文的做法是將機械結構、感測介面的瑕疵與感測電路非理想效應所造成的影響整理成為未知的系統參數包括:系統質量、剛性係數、阻尼係數、訊號比例常
數(scale factor)、訊號偏壓飄移量(signal drifts)。
本文主要分為兩部分,一是沒有考慮感測電路的情況下,設計一狀態觀察器,並於單軸(驅動軸)輸入兩頻率的訊號或是兩頻率以上的訊號,以訊號處理的方式(軟體)來估測出陀螺儀動態與系統未知參數及待量測的角速度。因此,不需要兩軸控制輸入,不需要事先知道陀螺儀質量塊的重量。預計可大幅降低微機電陀螺儀的製造成本與技術
門檻,進而使得微機電陀螺儀可廣泛應用於各式電子產品。二是考慮感測電路且具有電路瑕疵的情況下,設計一狀態觀察器,於兩軸給予控制輸入,以訊號處理的方式來估測出陀螺儀動態與系統未知參數(包含訊號比例常數、訊號偏壓飄移量)及待量測的角速度,並補償其為理想陀螺儀動態系統,進而無須透過積分運算,直接估測待測物的角度。
The mechanical structure imperfections and circuit imperfections greatly affect the performance of a gyroscope system. Normally this problem is lessened by physically tooling the hardware structures, for example, expensive fabrication facilities, post-fabrication processes, and complicated circuit designs. The disadvantages of doing so are costly. Recently, more and more research proposed using control methods (software approaches) to compensate the effect resulting from those imperfections and obtain correct angular rates because they can be very cost effective. However, those approaches often require a gyroscope system equipped with dual-axis control inputs and
the mass of the proof mass must be known beforehand. The existing commercial gyroscopes only equips with single axis control input. Thus, those existing compensation methods can not apply.
摘要............................................... i
ABSTRACT ......................................... ii
誌謝 ............................................ iii
目錄 ............................................. iv
圖目錄 ........................................... vi
表目錄 .......................................... vii
第一章 緒論 ....................................... 1
1.1 研究動機 ...................................... 3
1.2 文獻回顧 ...................................... 4
1.3 預期貢獻 ...................................... 5
1.4 論文架構 ...................................... 6
第二章 微機電陀螺儀系統簡介 ....................... 7
2.1 微機電陀螺儀系統簡介 .......................... 7
2.2 微機電陀螺儀系統模型 .......................... 9
2.3 感測電路模型 ................................. 11
2.3.1 理想感測介面搭配感測電路 ................... 14
2.3.2 具瑕疵感測介面搭配感測電路 ................. 17
2.4 模型建構 ..................................... 19
第三章 單軸控制輸入微機電振動式陀螺儀系統 ........ 22
3.1 觀察器設計 ................................... 22
3.2 控制輸入 ..................................... 27
3.3 數值模擬結果 ................................. 28
3.3.1 角速度為定值 ............................... 28
3.3.2 角速度隨時間變動 ........................... 29
3.3.3 觀察性矩陣奇異值 ........................... 30
3.4 討論 ......................................... 31
第四章 雙軸控制輸入微機電振動式陀螺儀系統 ........ 33
4.1 代數變換 ..................................... 34
4.2 觀察器設計 ................................... 36
4.3 控制輸入 ..................................... 40
4.4 數值模擬結果 ................................. 42
4.4.1 比例常數與飄移量皆為固定值 ................. 42
4.4.2 比例常數為固定值、飄移量隨時間變化(0.1Hz) .. 43
4.4.3 比例常數與飄移量皆隨時間變化(0.1Hz) ........ 44
4.4.4 比例常數與飄移量皆為定值,初始值為零 ....... 45
4.4.5 比例常數與飄移量皆為定值,初始值為零,兩軸輸入頻率不同 .. 46
4.4.6 觀察性矩陣奇異值 ........................... 47
4.5 討論 ......................................... 48
第五章 結論與未來計畫 ............................ 51
5.1 結論 ......................................... 51
5.2 未來計畫 ..................................... 52
參考文獻 ......................................... 53
附錄一 數值模擬用參數 ............................ 55
[1] Yazdi, N., Ayazi, F., and Najafi, K., “Micromachined Inertial Sensors,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 86, No. 8, August 1998.
[2] P.W. Loveday and C. A. Rogers, “Modification of piezoelectric vibratory gyroscope resonator parameters by feedback control,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 45, No. 5, pp.1211-1215, 1998.
[3] A. M. Shkel, R. Horowitz, A. A. Seshia, S. Park, and R. T. Howe, “Dynamics and control of micromachined gyroscopes,” Proceeding of American Control Conference, San Diego, California, USA, pp. 2119-2124, 1999.
[4] R. P. Leland, “Adaptive mode tuning for vibrational gyroscopes,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 242-247, 2003.
[5] S. Park and R. Horowitz, “Adaptive control for the conventional mode of operation of MEMS gyroscopes,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 101-108, 2003.
[6] R. P. Leland, “Adaptive control of a MEMS gyroscope using Lyapunov methods,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 278-283, 2006.
[7] S. Park, “Adaptive Control Strategies for MEMS Gyroscopes,” University of California at Berkeley, Ph.D. Thesis, 2000.
[8] Dong L., and Avanesian D., “Drive-Mode Control for Vibrational MEMS Gyroscopes,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 56, No. 4, April 2009.
[9] L. Dong and R. P. Leland, “The adaptive control system of a MEMS gyroscope with time-varying rotation rate,”Proceeding of American Control Conference, Portland, OR, USA, pp. 3592-3597, 2005.
[10] M. Salah, M. McIntyre, D. Daeson, and J. Wagner, “Time-varying angular rate sensing for a MEMS Z-axis gyroscope,” Proceeding of 45th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp. 2165-2170, 2006.
[11] L. Dong, Q. Zheng, and Z. Gao, “On control system design for the conventional mode of operation of vibrational gyroscopes,” IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 8, No. 11, pp. 1871-1878, 2008.
[12] K. Liu, W.P. Zhang, W.Y. Chen, K. Li, F.Y. Dai, F. Chu, X.S. Wu, G.Y. Ma and Q.J. Xiao, “The development of micro-gyroscope technology,” Journal of micromechanics
and microengineering, October 2009.
[13] Park, S., and Horowitz, R., “New adaptive mode of operation for MEMS gyroscopes,” Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol. 126, Issue 4, pp.800-810, 2004.
[14] Boser, B., “Electronics for Micromachined Inertial Sensors,” International Conference on Solid-state Sensors and Actuators, June 1997.
[15] C.Y. Chi, Y.P. Peng, and T.L. Chen, “Compensation of interface circuit errors for MEMS gyroscopes using state observers,” The 3rd IEEE International Conference on Sensing Technology, pp.25-30, 2008.
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