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研究生:王妤珣
研究生(外文):Yu-Hsun Wang
論文名稱:外在獎酬對工作動機之影響-以內、外在工作動機傾向作為干擾變項
論文名稱(外文):The Impact of extrinsic rewards on work motivation—the Moderating Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation orientation
指導教授:房美玉房美玉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Meiyu Fang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:工作動機工作動機傾向認知評價理論自我決定論
外文關鍵詞:Work MotivationWork Motivation OrientationCognition Evaluation TheorySelf-Determination Theory
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Stajkovic & Luthans(1997)指出公司組織最常使用金錢、社會認同感和與績效表現相關的口頭回饋等三種方式作為外在獎酬項目,用以回饋員工的良好工作表現,並刺激員工工作動機。關於外在獎酬對工作動機之影響,學者一直存在有兩派不同的說法。一方學者認為金錢獎酬會削弱內在動機,而口頭獎酬可提升內在動機;另一方則認為金錢獎酬有助於員工績效表現。因此,以上三種獎酬項目對工作績效表現和工作動機的直接影響力已受到諸多研究的檢驗與衡量,然而,過去卻鮮少有學者將個人的一般動機傾向,納入外在獎酬對受試者從事特定工作的動機之影響因子當中。
本研究以國內大專以上學生作為研究對象,研究方法為進行實驗室實驗,針對特定任務測量受試者的工作動機,並輔助以問卷法測量工作動機傾向。實驗採用受試者內二因子實驗設計,透過提供不同的獎酬組合,瞭解接受外在獎酬對受試者工作動機所產生之影響。另外,本研究亦探討受試者長期而言,傾向受到內在或外在工作動機所驅使之個人差異,並分析外在獎酬對工作動機之影響,是否會受到工作動機傾向的干擾作用而產生不同的效果。
研究結果顯示,口頭獎酬會對內在動機產生正向影響,金錢獎酬則僅有部分的負向影響;而口頭獎酬會對外在動機產生正向影響。然而,內在工作動機傾向會對內在動機產生正向影響之假設僅部分成立;另外,本研究結果也顯示,工作動機傾向對外在獎酬與工作動機之間的關係,並不具有干擾效果存在。
Stajkovic & Luthans(1997) mentioned that financial rewards, social identity and performance-related positive feedback are the most frequently used extrinsic rewards in organizations. They are used to reward employees’ good performance and to stimulate employees’ work motivation. However, there are different hypothesis on the effects of extrinsic rewards. Some scholars believe that financial rewards would undermine intrinsic motivation and positive feedback may strengthen intrinsic motivation, however, some scholars believe that financial rewards are good for employee performance.
The three extrinsic reward’s effects on work motivation and performance have been well studied; however, few researchers had put attention to include the influence of general work motivation orientation.
The study uses a puzzle-solving task as experiment tool. 160 undergraduate and graduate students were invited as subjects and randomly assigned to four experimental conditions. By using 2x2 between-subjects design, the experiment analysis the effects on extrinsic rewards toward subjects’ work motivation. Subjects are also required to fill out questionnaires of work motivation orientation. The research wants to examine the effects on the long-term work motivation orientation toward work motivation, and analysis the moderating effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation orientation between extrinsic rewards and work motivation.
Results show positive effects on positive feedback toward both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, and partial negative effects on financial rewards toward intrinsic motivation. The findings also demonstrate only partial support on the hypothesis of positive effects on intrinsic motivation orientation toward intrinsic motivation. However, the research finds that work motivation orientation has no moderating effect between external rewards and work motivation. Practical implications and further suggestions on academic research of the results are discussed.
中文摘要 .................................................................................................................i
英文摘要 ............................................................................................................... ii
目錄 ...................................................................................................................... iii
圖目錄 .................................................................................................................... v
表目錄 ................................................................................................................... vi
第一章、緒論 ......................................................................................................... 1
第二章、文獻探討 ................................................................................................. 3
第一節、動機...................................................................................................... 3
第二節、工作動機 .............................................................................................. 6
第三節、內在工作動機....................................................................................... 8
第四節、外在工作動機..................................................................................... 10
第五節、衡量獎酬對工作動機之影響 .............................................................. 11
第六節、工作動機與工作動機傾向 .................................................................. 28
第七節、外在獎酬對工作動機與工作動機傾向之影響 .................................... 31
第三章、研究方法 ............................................................................................... 34
第一節、研究架構 ............................................................................................ 34
第二節、研究對象 ............................................................................................ 35
第三節、設備與儀器 ........................................................................................ 35
第四節、實驗程序 ............................................................................................ 36
第五節、衡量工作動機、工作動機傾向與外在獎酬........................................ 38
第四章、研究分析結果 ........................................................................................ 41
第一節、受試者樣本特性描述 ......................................................................... 41
第二節、各變項間相關分析 ............................................................................. 43
第三節、不同獎酬型態下工作動機之差異分析 ............................................... 45
第四節、各情境受試者間工作動機傾向分析 ................................................... 48
第五節、內在工作動機傾向對獎酬型態及內在動機之迴歸分析 ..................... 53
第六節、外在工作動機傾向對外在工作動機之迴歸分析 ................................ 58
第五章、研究結果與建議 .................................................................................... 60
第一節、研究結果 ............................................................................................ 60
第二節、研究貢獻與相關應用 ......................................................................... 63
第三節、研究限制與後續建議 ......................................................................... 64
參考文獻 .............................................................................................................. 66
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