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研究生:劉宗強
研究生(外文):Tsung-chiang Liu
論文名稱:利用風洞實驗研究蒸發皿蒸發率與風速之關係
論文名稱(外文):Wind Effect on the Evaporate Rate of Class A Evaporation Pan
指導教授:朱佳仁朱佳仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-ren Chu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:46
中文關鍵詞:風速蒸發皿盪漾波風洞實驗
外文關鍵詞:Evaporation panseiche wavewind tunnel experiment
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本研究利用風洞實驗來研究風速對A型蒸發皿蒸發速率的影響。實驗結果發現在風速U > 5 m s-1的狀況下,蒸發皿內的水會產生蕩漾波,波高會高於皿高,最後導致水濺出蒸發皿,濺出水量遠大於蒸發量。這表示在無人觀測的狀況下,濺出水量會誤認為蒸發量,造成高估蒸發速率的現象。且在相同的風速下,風所驅動之盪漾波及濺出水量會因為不同水位計而有所不同,水位計在蒸發皿外的濺出水量比水位計在蒸發皿內的濺出水量大。比對現地觀測的四年(2004-2008)資料發現,濺出水量會造成年蒸發率4.31 %的誤差。除此之外,研究結果亦發現蒸發皿的初始水深會影響蒸發速率,當風速U = 4 m s-1時,初始水深在8公分以上時,蒸發速率並未有明顯減少,但當初始水深為6公分時,則蒸發速率較標準水深20公分的蒸發速率減少26%。但當風速愈小,皿壁的遮蔽效應就愈不明顯。風速U = 2 m s-1,初始水深從20公分變為6公分時,蒸發速率幾乎相同。本研究也發現在相同風速U = 4 m s-1、淨輻射量Rn = 200 W m-2的狀況下,蒸發皿底下有無一木製棧板,蒸發皿的蒸發速率皆相同,亦即棧板不會影響蒸發皿的蒸發速率。
This study used wind tunnel experiments to investigate the wind effect on the evaporation rates of Class A evaporimeter pan. The experimental results revealed that high wind speed (U > 5 m s-1) could generate seiche wave inside the pan. The wave height was higher than the rim of the pan, and water was spill out of the pan. Namely, the water loss from the pan is not entirely due to evaporation and the evaporation rates could be over-estimated at high wind speeds. By checking the wind speed and evaporation rates of a four-year (2004-2008) field observation collected in Taiwan, it was found the ratio of yearly water loss due to the spill to the average evaporation rate is 4.31 %. In addition, this study examined the influence of initial water depth in the pan on the evaporation rate. The results demonstrated that the evaporation rate decreased as the water depth decreased when the water depth is less than a critical depth. The evaporation rate of water depth 6 cm is about 26% that of standard depth (20 cm) when wind speed U = 4 m s-1. It was also found that with or without a wooden platform underneath the pan, the evaporation rates are the same.
Abstract II
Contents III
Notation IV
Figure captions V
Table captions VI
1. Introduction 1
2. Experimental setup 4
3. Results and discussion 6
3.1 Laboratory experiments 6
3.2 Field observation 9
4. Conclusions 12
References 13
Figures 17
Tables 36
Appendix A 39
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