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研究生:黃柏源
研究生(外文):Po-Yuan Huang
論文名稱:三維動態位移之數位影像量測技術
論文名稱(外文):Measurement of the Three-Dimensional Dynamic Deflection by the Digital Image Method
指導教授:王仲宇
指導教授(外文):Chung-Yue Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:動態位移單機3維位移量測3維位移量測無覘標位移量測數位影像景深行為模式迴歸法構件邊緣追蹤法
外文關鍵詞:non-targets deflection measurement3D deflection measurementdigital imageMethod of the Behavior Regression of Field Depthdynamic deflectionComponent Edge Tracing Methodsingle camera 3D deflection measurement
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位移之量測一直是土木結構物檢監測中一個重要的項目,也是許多安全性評估的依據之一。尤當地震、洪水等巨大天災發生後,道路橋梁的損害往往造成民眾的不便甚至於截斷了生活必需品的運輸路線,而恢復道路橋梁之正常運作,必須視道路橋梁之損壞狀況而定,對於非全毀壞之橋梁的安全性與使用性做出正確與可靠的判斷,是讓社會大眾快速恢復正常運作的關鍵,因此迫切需要一個健全可靠且有效的非破壞量測與評估技術。本文係運用數位影像分析方法發展出一套不用黏貼覘標之非接觸遠距量測位移方法,進一步利用景深變位的成像現象發展出一套單機3 維位移量測方法,僅用一台相機便可對觀測點施行3 維運動軌跡量測,並以實驗室之實驗驗證兩套方法於動態位移量測之可行性,再以台灣宜蘭泰雅大橋與牛鬥橋之現地量測探討現地實際應用之廣泛性與實用性,並與IBIS-S、全測站、光達共同比較驗證。
Displacement measurement is an important item of the health monitoring and diversification performance evaluation of civil infrastructures. Especially after earthquakes, floods and other enormous natural disasters, large number of the population will be dislocated, the recovery processes are usually hampered by the numerous damaged civil infrastructures, some are totally and others are partially. Therefore, it is critical to determine the safety of the partially damaged infrastructures so that the society could regain their usage and could have a speedy return to normalcy. Thus, there is an urgent need for reliable, robust and effective non-destructive evaluation techniques. In this paper, digital image analysis processing is applied to position coordinates of the specific targets on a structure and to calculate its displacements. Further, combines a method that using non-targets measurement with digital video measuring dynamic deflection to develop a non-contact and non-target remote measurement method of bridge deflection. In other hand, by returning the image variation that changes because observation point’s out-of-plane motion, this paper develop a method that using single camera to determine the 3D deflection. Experiments of a vibrating beam were conducted to verify and validate the proposed measurement and analysis techniques. In addition, besides targets and non-targets results, the comparisons with the results obtained by IBIS-S system, Total Station and LiDAR were also conducted to understand the performance of the proposed method.
摘要‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧I
Abstract‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧II
誌謝‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧III
目錄‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧IV
圖目錄‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧VII
表目錄‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧XII
第一章 緒論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧1
1.1. 前言‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧1
1.2. 研究動機與目的‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧1
1.3. 論文大綱‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧2
第二章 文獻回顧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧3
2.1. 常用之位移量測儀器方法‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧3
2.1.1. LVDT線性位移感測器‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧3
2.1.2. 全站儀‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧3
2.1.3. 加速度計‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧4
2.1.4. 光纖光柵應變感測器‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧4
2.1.5. 光學尺‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧4
2.1.6. PSD‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧5
2.1.7. IBIS-S‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧5
2.1.8. LiDAR‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧6
2.2. 數位影像之量測相關文獻‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧7
第三章 分析理論‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧9
3.1. 數位影像處理‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧9
3.1.1. 影像成像基本原理‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧9
3.1.2. 彩色灰階之圖轉換‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧10
3.1.3. 直方圖均化‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧11
3.1.4. 直方圖擴展法(對比擴展法)‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧12
3.1.5. 邊緣銳利化‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧13
3.1.6. 影像二值化‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧14
3.1.7. 影像填充與小面積移除‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧15
3.1.8. 覘標幾何性質求取‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧16
3.2. 構件邊緣追蹤法‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧17
3.2.1. 邊緣線求取‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧17
3.2.2. 分析流程‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧20
3.3. 景深行為模式迴歸法‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧21
3.3.1. 行為解釋‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧22
3.3.2. 迴歸方法與分析流程‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧28
3.3.3. 覘標選擇‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧30
第四章 實驗室實驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧33
4.1. 實驗設備‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧33
4.2. 構件邊緣追蹤法量測實驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧41
4.2.1. 實驗試體與配置‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧41
4.2.2. 固定端鋁梁量測實驗結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧43
4.3. 景深行為模式迴歸法靜態量測實驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧47
4.3.1. 實驗配置‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧47
4.3.2. 靜態實驗結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧49
4.4. 景深行為模式迴歸法動態量測實驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧53
4.4.1. 實驗配置‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧53
4.4.2. 動態實驗結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧55
第五章 現地試驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧64
5.1. 宜蘭泰雅大橋現地載重試驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧64
5.1.1. 泰雅大橋背景與現況‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧64
5.1.2. 量測規劃與配置‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧67
5.1.3. 量測試驗結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧70
5.2. 宜蘭牛鬥橋橋墩側推試驗‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧75
5.2.1. 牛鬥橋舊橋背景與現況‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧75
5.2.2. 量測規劃與配置‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧77
5.2.3. 量測試驗結果‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧81
第六章 結論與建議‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧92
參考文獻‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧94
附錄 A‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧98
附錄 B‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧‧103
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