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研究生:許執平
研究生(外文):Chih-Ping Hsu
論文名稱:以超臨界流體製備金屬觸媒/奈米碳管複合材料並探討其添加對氫化鋁鋰放氫特性的影響
論文名稱(外文):Supercritical Fluid Synthesized metal/carbon nanotube Composites for Improving Dehydrogenation Performance of LiAlH4
指導教授:李勝隆李勝隆引用關係洪健龍張仍奎
指導教授(外文):Sheng-Long LeeJain-Long HorngJeng-Kuei Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:材料科學與工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:超臨界流體氫化鋁鋰臨場X光繞射熱程控脫附儀奈米碳管石墨烯
外文關鍵詞:temperature-programmed desorption (TPD)multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs)grapheneIn-situ XRDsupercritical fluidlithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4)
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本研究首先分別以球磨法於氫化鋁鋰(LiAlH4)添加各種金屬、金屬氧化物與碳材並研究催化效果,找出適合的催化劑與載體,研究其添加量對催化效果之影響;再利用超臨界流體(Supercritical fluids)製備金屬觸媒/奈米碳管複合材料,以球磨法與LiAlH4均勻混合,先研究超臨界流體之製程參數對其放氫特性的影響,而後研究複合材料添加量與催化效果之關係,最後則是恆溫放氫動力學的研究,並與文獻添加中奈米Ni文獻之放氫動力學曲線做比較。
分析儀器則使用X光繞射儀(X-Ray Diffractometer, XRD)與臨場X光繞射(In-situ XRD)進行晶體結構與相變化鑑定、掃描式電子顯微鏡(Scanning Electron Microscope, SEM)進行催化劑與LiAlH4球磨前後之微觀結構分析、高解析掃描穿透式電子顯微鏡(High-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, HR-STEM)進行金屬顆粒於碳材上之大小及分佈分析、熱程控脫附儀(Temperature-programmed Desorption, TPD)與線上氣體量測即時分析儀(Real time gas Analyzer, RTGA)進行放氫特性研究。
研究結果顯示所添加微米級之金屬如Ni、Pd、Cu、Fe等催化效果皆不顯著,然而文獻中雖然學者添加奈米Ni具有催化效果,推測是由於顆粒大小造成與文獻催化效果上的差異;金屬氧化物部分Y2O3具有些微催化效果,Nb2O5則為具有稍佳的效果,而在碳材的催化效果中以多壁奈米碳管(MWCNTs)的效果最好,添加量達50 wt%時在室溫下即可放出氫氣,石墨烯(Graphene)則次之。利用超臨界流體披覆奈米Ni於MWCNTs上形成Ni/CNT之催化效果則相當顯著,與金屬Ni之效果差異極大,10 wt% Ni/CNT催化效果更優於50 wt% MWCNTs,足以說明催化劑之尺寸效應相當大,且Ni/CNT於相同添加量下之放氫溫度低於文獻中提及效果最佳之VCl3,放氫動力學則優於文獻中之奈米Ni,證實超臨界流體法為一有效改善氫化鋁鋰放氫特性與節省催化劑使用量之製程。
In this study, we tried to improve the hydrogen storage properties of lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) by ball milling process. Additives were metal, metal oxide and carbon materials. To further improved the catalytic effect of additives, we used supercritical fluids assisted process to decorate metal particles on carbon nanomaterials, ball milled with LiAlH4 and investigated the influence of supercritical fluid parameters and metal loading on the dehydrogenation properties of LiAlH4.
Analytical Instruments were X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), In-situ XRD, Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM), High-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-STEM), Real time gas Analyzer (RTGA), and Temperature-programmed Desorption (TPD).
The results of this study showed carbon materials had the best catalytic effect for LiAlH4 among metal, metal oxide and carbon materials, especially multi-walled carbon nanotube (with catalyst) and graphene. Moreover, compared to 50 wt% MWCNTs (with catalyst) modified LiAlH4, the dehydrogenation properties of 10 wt% Ni/CNT composites modified LiAlH4 were better.
摘要 I
Abstract III
致謝 IV
總目錄 V
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 X
一、研究背景與文獻回顧 1
1.1儲氫材料的使用 1
1.2儲氫材料的分類 2
1.3 MAlH4(M = Li, Na)複合型氫化物 3
1.3.1氫化鋁鋰(LiAlH4)之基本性質 4
1.3.2氫化鋁鋰(LiAlH4)之球磨研究 5
1.3.3氫化鋁鋰(LiAlH4)之催化劑添加研究 6
1.3.4 MAlH4(M = Li, Na)之碳材添加研究 8
1.4超臨界流體法 9
1.4.1超臨界流體簡介 9
1.4.2超臨界流體之性質 10
1.4.3超臨界二氧化碳 11
1.4.4超臨界流體於碳材上製備奈米修飾顆粒 12
1.5實驗目的 14
二、實驗方法與步驟 29
2.1實驗方法與流程 29
2.2複合材料製作與催化劑之添加 31
2.2.1機械球磨法 31
2.2.2超臨界流體法 31
2.3相變化分析 32
2.3.1 X光繞射儀(X-Ray Diffractometer, XRD) 32
2.3.2臨場X光繞射(In-situ XRD) 32
2.4微觀結構分析 33
2.4.1掃描式電子顯微鏡(Scanning Electron Microscope, SEM) 33
2.4.2高解析掃描穿透式電子顯微鏡(High-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, HR-STEM, JEM2100) 33
2.5放氫特性分析 34
2.5.1熱程控脫附儀(Temperature-programmed Desorption, TPD) 34
2.5.2線上氣體量測即時分析儀(Real time gas Analyzer, RTGA) 34
三、實驗結果與討論 38
3.1 LiAlH4原材料分析 38
3.2球磨參數的選擇 39
3.3不同添加物之催化效果分析 40
3.3.1各式金屬之催化效果分析 40
3.3.2各式氧化物之催化效果分析 41
3.3.3各式碳材之催化效果分析 41
3.4超臨界流體製程影響之分析 44
3.4.1超臨界二氧化碳、空氣之披覆輔助效果 44
3.4.2於MWCNTs上之Ni其粒徑大小與分佈分析 45
3.5超臨界流體製備之複合材料催化效果分析 46
3.5.1 Pd/CNT之催化效果分析 46
3.5.2 Ni/CNT、Ni/Graphene之催化效果分析 46
四、結論 74
五、未來研究方向 76
六、參考文獻 77
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