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研究生:詹悅湘
研究生(外文):Yueh-hsiang Chan
論文名稱:19世紀美國文本中的錯認及形象危機
論文名稱(外文):Misrecognition and the Crisis of Publicity in Three Nineteenth Century American Texts
指導教授:司徒尉
指導教授(外文):David Stewart
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:英美語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:形象錯認十九世紀美國
外文關鍵詞:misrecognitionnineteenth century Americapublicity
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社會禮俗長久以來一直被視作社會規範的一個重要形式;此外,社會禮俗也扮演了確保社會階層以及界線的穩定。然而,美國的社會禮俗自從其取得獨立後便急遽改變,社會地位也因此不再固定不變而「錯認」也在此情況下在社會上造成恐慌。
本論文探討四份美國文學著作中的錯認議題,從探討華盛頓歐文的《李伯大夢》(Rip van Winkle)開始審視美國獨立後的錯認引發的社會危機,再來將會檢視艾倫坡的《莫格爾街凶殺案》(The Murders in the Rue Morgue),在這篇故事中的目擊證人都將實際上是隻猩猩的凶手所發出的聲音誤認為是和自己不同國籍的外國人。在《莫格爾街凶殺案》後將會探討亨利詹姆士的《黛斯密勒》(Daisy Miller)中黛絲拒絕沃克太太一個淑女應該坐馬車出門而非走路的建議時所引發的對立緊張的場景。最後我將探討史蒂芬克萊恩的《怪物》(The Monster)中的亨利強森(Henry Johnson)在周五傍晚穿著色彩搶眼的衣著走在大街上使旁人無法辨認其身分時所造成的恐慌。
People have long valued social norms because they are a means of social control. In addition, social norms stabilize social hierarchy and bulwarks social boundaries. However, social norms changed drastically in the United States since it transformed into a self-governing urbanized country. Social positions, therefore, ceased to be fixed and transparent as before, and misrecognition caused anxiety in this scenario.
I will investigate crisis of misrecognition in four American texts in this thesis. The thesis begins with Washington Irving’s “Rip van Winkle” (1819) to pose the apprehension that misrecognition generated after America’s independence. I will then examine three scenes from three different nineteenth-century narratives in which a protagonist is publicly misrecognized, much the way Rip van Winkle is. I will argue in each case that this act of misrecognition expresses continuing anxiety about democratic freedom in the United States, in particular when it involves the public conduct of the social group represented by the protagonist. The first scene I will examine occurs in Edgar Allen Poe’s “The Murders in the Rue Morgue” (1840) when witnesses who have overheard the murders of the two women all misidentify the killer, who turns out to be an “Orang-Outan,” as a foreigner based on the fact that they cannot understand the language it speaks. The second scene I will examine comes from Henry James’s Daisy Miller (1878) when Mrs. Walker insists that she rides in the carriage with her, rather than walk with the Italian, Mr. Giovanelli, suggesting that people who see her will think she is not respectable. The third scene I will examine occurs in Stephen Crane’s “The Monster” (1898) when Henry Johnson, Dr. Trescott’s black carriage hand, strolls down the main street looking to have a good time on a Friday evening only to cause an anxious debate among white male bystanders about who he is.
Chapter One:
Introduction………………… 1
Chapter Two:
On the Man Question: Male Passion and Public Order in Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Murders in the Rue Morgue”………………………………… 10
Chapter Three:
Daisy Miller and the Crisis of Publicity………………………………… 35
Chapter Four:
Black Recognition and the Politics of the Crowd in “The Monster”…….. 52
Chapter Five:
Conclusion……………………68
Works Cited…………………………… 70
Bell, Millicent. Meaning in Henry James. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.
Berland, Alwyn. Culture and Conduct in the Novels of Henry James. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Boyer, Paul. Urban Masses and Moral Oder in America, 1820-1920. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1978.
Brand, Dana. The Spectator and the City in Nineteenth Century American Literature. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Brodhead, Richard H. Cultures of Letters: Scenes of Reading and Writing in Nineteenth-Century America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Brook, Peter. “The Text of the City.” Oppositions (Spring, 1977), 7-11.
Crane, Stephen. “The Monster.” The Best Stories of Stephen Crane. Stilwell: Digireads.com Publishing, 1980 [1898]
Du Bois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2005.
Fleissner, Jennifer L. Women, Compulsion, Modernity: The Moment of American Naturalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.
Galloway, David. Henry James: The Portrait of a Lady. London: Edward Arnold, 1967.
Gandal, Keith. The Virtues of the Vicious: Jacob Riis, Stephen Cane, and Spectacle of the Slum. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Halliburton, David. The Color of the Sky: A Study of Stephen Crane. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Halttunen, Karen. Confidence Men and Painted Women: A Study of Middle-Class Culture in America, 1830-1870. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.
Irving, Washington. “Rip Van Winkle.” Rip Van Winkle and Other Selected Stories New York: Tor Books, 1993 [1819].
James, Henry. Daisy Miller. Ed. Geoffrey Moore. London: Penguin Books, 1986 [1878].
Kann, Mark E. On the Man Question: Gender and Civic Virtue in America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.
Kessler, Marni. “Dusting the Surface, or the Bourgeoisie, the Veil, and Haussmann’s Paris.” The Invisible Flâneur? Gender, Public Space and Visual Culture in
Nineteenth-Century Paris. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006.
Lofland, Lyn H. A World of Strangers: Order and Action in Urban Public Space. Illinois: Waveland Press, 1985.
Poe, Edgar. Allan. “The Murders in the Rue Morgue.” Selected Tales. New York: Penguin, 1994.
Pollak, Vivian R. New Essays on Daisy Miller and the Turn of the Screw. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Rael, Patrick. Black Identity and Black Protest in the Antebellum North. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
Ryan, P. Mary. Women in Public: Between Banners and Ballot, 1825-1880. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990.
Stafford, William T. James’s Daisy Miller: The Story, the Play, the Critics. Indiana: Purdue University Press, 1963.
Still, Bayrd. Urban America: A History with Documents. Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1974.
Wegelin, Christof. The Image of Europe in Henry James. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 1958.
Wilson, Elizabeth. “The Invisible Flâneur.” New Left Review 191 (1992): 90-110.
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