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研究生:林俊岑
研究生(外文):CHUN-TSEN Lin
論文名稱:應用於生醫電刺激器中動態阻抗之自動調整刺激時間的脈衝寬度調變控制器
論文名稱(外文):A PWM-Based Auto-Tuning Electric Charge Time Controller for Biomedical Electrical Stimulator
指導教授:薛木添
指導教授(外文):MUH-TIAN SHIUE
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所碩士在職專班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:寬度調變動態阻抗電刺激生醫
外文關鍵詞:Biomedical ElectricalPWMStimulatorElectric Charge
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摘要
神經電刺激在神經功能失調治療和神經損傷康復中具有極其重要的作用。隨著微電子控制技術,電腦技術以及神經科學的發展,神經電刺激已經從傳統的經由皮層電刺激逐漸發展到植入式電刺激階段,目前植入式神經電刺激在治療和控制帕金森病,癲癇,慢性疼痛,聽視覺障礙等多個方面已經取得了較大進展。
本論文的設計為一個控制植入式生理電刺激器的控制器以及電刺激器。電刺激器必須透過電極作為介面才能對神經或肌肉進行電刺激的動作,然而電極-組織介面阻抗可能因電極本體受刺激電流、環境等因素而產生變化,或者受接觸不良、電極大小與材質的影響,例如視網膜是一個弧狀的面,所以不同位置的電極,接觸到組織形成的阻抗值亦會不同,其變異範圍在10KΩ– 100KΩ,所以對於不同的介面阻抗值,必須調整刺激週期使得刺激電荷量可以達到有效的電刺激,此時如果沒有依照阻抗的變化量予以控制增減刺激的電荷量,會導致所需要的刺激量和施予細胞的刺激量出現不相等的現象,並且當刺激量超過某一定程度之後,便有可能產生永久性的細胞傷害。
為了讓電刺激器能滿足阻抗變異的需求,根據阻抗變異與電刺激參數的設定,論文中提出了一個可以根據介面阻抗不同而自動調整刺激時間的控制器,此控制器能依照每次的刺激阻抗不同而自動調整所需要的刺激時間週期,一方面使得刺激的組織得到需要的刺激量,另一方面保護刺激過量導致組織損壞。
電刺激器則是利用產生三倍供應電壓輸出的高電壓輸出級驅動電路,並以台積電0.18μm互補式金氧半導體的標準製程實現,其好處是不需花費其他昂貴的特殊製程,又可以與其他電路整合於同一晶片。
Abstract
Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation plays an important role in the treatment of nervous diseases and rehabilitation of nerve injury. With the rapid development of microelectronic technology, bio-technology and Neuroscience, Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation has been transformed from a traditional electrical stimulation to implantable electrical stimulation, and got great progress in Parkinson, Epilepsy, Chronic Pain and others visual diseases.
This thesis aims to design an electrical stimulator controller for implanted visual prosthesis. The designed electrical stimulator stimulates nerves or muscles using electrodes as the interface. Generally the impedance of electrode-tissue interface may change in the rage of 10KΩ – 100KΩ due to electrode itself such as poor contact, the electrode size, material differences, and stimulus current and environmental factors. It is necessary to adjust the stimulus period to get correct electrical charge, otherwise, will induce the difference between theoretical electrical charge and real electrical charge, and sometimes will damage the cell permanently.
This thesis proposes a new impedance measurement circuit called PWM-based auto-tuning electrical charge timing controller, ahead of the stimulation circuit, to prevent inaccurate electrical charge and protect histiocyte. The width of the digital pulse width modulator can be varied automatically, based on different interface impedances. That means the stimulus period can be auto-adjusted with dynamic impedance to get required electrical charge and best effect.
Besides, the electrical stimulator is designed by a high voltage output driver which can generate three times supply voltage output. The whole design is implemented in TSMC 0.18-μm standard CMOS technology to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed electrical stimulator. An advantage is that it can be fully integrated with other circuits without extra processing costs.
目錄
摘要 i
Abstract iii
致謝 v
目錄 vii
圖目錄 xi
表目錄 xiii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機 2
1.3 論文架構 2
第二章 植入功能性電刺激系統 3
2.1 植入式電刺激系統的應用 3
2.2 視覺輔具 4
2.3 電刺激器電極模型與電刺激參數 6
2.4 電路架構 10
第三章 自動調整刺激時間控制器電路設計 15
3.1 討論電刺激電荷量與介面阻抗的關係 15
3.2 誤差偵測線路區塊 17
3.2.1 類比切換器( Analog Switch )線路 17
3.2.2 類比緩衝器( Analog Buffer )線路 18
3.3 取樣( Sampling )數學模型與線路區塊 19
3.3.1 取樣( Sampling )數學模型 19
3.3.2 取樣( Sampling )線路區塊 21
3.3.3 延遲觸發( Delay & Trigger )線路 22
3.4 類比脈衝寬度調變( Analog PWM )數學模型與線路區塊 23
3.4.1 類比脈衝寬度調變( Analog PWM )數學模型 24
3.4.2 電壓轉電流( V-I Converter ) & 電容充電( Charger )線路 26
3.4.3 Level-Shift & CLK_In 線路 27
3.4.4 類比比較器( Analog Comparator )線路 29
3.5 Simulink線路架構模擬 30
第四章 高電壓刺激器電路設計 33
4.1 高電壓電刺激器電路架構 33
4.1.1 電晶體的崩潰問題 35
4.1.2 使用Deep-N-well製程 36
4.2 電位轉移器( Level Shifter ) 37
4.3 輸出級驅動電路 41
4.3.1 靜態操作分析 42
4.3.2 暫態操作分析 44
第五章 電路模擬與晶片布局 47
5.1.1 類比緩衝器模擬圖 47
5.1.2 誤差偵測( Error Detect )線路模擬圖 48
5.1.3 延遲觸發( Delay & Trigger )模擬圖 49
5.1.4 取樣線路模擬結果 51
5.1.5 電壓轉電流( V-I Converter )線路模擬 52
5.1.6 類比比較器模擬 54
5.2 整體線路PWM輸出( VPWM_OUT )模擬 56
5.3 刺激電荷量規格 60
5.4 高電壓刺激器( Stimulator )模擬結果 62
5.4.1 電位轉移器模擬結果 62
5.4.2 輸出級驅動電路模擬結果 64
5.5 文獻比較 68
5.6 控制器及刺激器電路之晶片佈局 70
第六章 結論 73
6.1 結論 73
6.2 未來展望 74
參考文獻 77
參考文獻
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