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研究生:翁鴻偉
研究生(外文):Hong-wei Wong
論文名稱:淡水河流域溶解性有機碳通量之研究
論文名稱(外文):Flux of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Danshuei River Basin
指導教授:劉康克劉康克引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kon-kee Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:水文與海洋科學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:溶解性有機碳溶解性有機碳通量土地利用
外文關鍵詞:Dissolved organic carbon(DOC)Land use
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因大氣中二氧化碳增加造成全球暖化的問題,碳循環近年在學術研究上受到重視。碳元素在地球系統中可簡單分為有機、無機兩類。其中陸域上有機碳(Organic Carbon, OC)可分成顆粒態有機碳(POC)與溶解態有機碳(DOC) 。然而,溶解性有機碳在亞熱帶地區中的實測研究卻非常缺乏。本研究透過2002-2005年間在淡水河流域之密集採樣及分析的結果,及水利署之觀測流量進行溶解性有機碳輸出之研究;因觀測流量資料上有些許遺漏;因此使用TOPMODEL進行流量模擬,同時為了減少流量上的不確定性,本研究選定的子集水區皆位於中上游流域或是未受水庫影響之支流。淡水河流域主要由大漢溪、新店溪及基隆河三條支流所組成,其中石門水庫跟翡翠水庫分別位於大漢溪及新店溪中上游地區。
通量計算的結果在淡水河中上游地區為12-45kg-C/km2/yr;不同計算方式間奇差異約為±10%,除福山及逮魚崛兩個集水區不同計算方式間差異可達±30%,而到了下游地區的支流其通量為50-115kg-C/km2/yr不同計算方式上差異為±5%,除寶橋及五堵集水區兩個集水區不同計算方式間差異可達±25%,溼季通量約為全年的75%季節間輸出量的差異大致上是3倍。研究結果指出淡水呵流域溶解性有機碳輸出和溫度人口密度有顯著正關係。本研究中發現淡水河流域中溶解性有機碳輸出與幾類土地利用類型有明顯之相關,分別為水稻田、建地和竹林呈正相關,和天然林為明顯的負相關。。溶解性有機碳輸出與天然林為明顯的負相關,但和人工林有微弱之正相關,推測應是造林撫育作業使得林地出現部分裸露及大量的枯落物所致。此外竹林與溶解性有機碳之關連有待進一步的研究及更多的證據才可證實。
Global warming due to enhanced greenhouse effect that makes the global carbon cycle became a hot issue in the past few decades. River export of carbon is an important part of global carbon cycle, but most current studies presumed that the carbon export by rivers remains unchanged despite all the other changes. The organic carbon exported by river can be distinguished into two types: particular organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Past data showed that the major form of the river exported organic carbon was in dissolved form with DOC accounting for 60% of total organic carbon (TOC). In Taiwan the river export of carbon is dominated by the particular form, but most of it is fossil carbon. TO the biogenic organic carbon in river loads, both the POC and DOC are equally important. For this study, we used DOC data obtained from 2002-2005, and the discharge data of Danshuei River Basin from the Water Resource Agency to investigate the export of dissolved organic carbon. Since several parts of the discharge data were missing, we used the TOPMODEL simulate the discharge in order to make up for the missing data. To avoid the reservoir effect, we choose the middle-upper sections of the main channel and, the tributaries that were not affected by the reservoir. The Danshuei River System comprises three major tributaries, namely, the Da-Han Creek, the Shin-Dien Creek and the Keelung River. There are two reservoirs in the Danshuei River System: the Shimen Reservoir on the Da-Han Creek and the Fei-tsui reservoir on the Shin-Dien Creek.
The yields of DOC in different watersheds of the middle-upper section of the Danshuei River System was 12-45kg-C/km2/yr, which were averaged from results calculated by four different methods, which resulted in variations of 10-30% between methods. By contrast, watersheds in the downstream area gave yields of 50-115kg-C/km2/yr with a similar between methods variation of 5-25%. The seasonal variation of DOC export showed a range of about three folds, with nearly 75% exported in the wet season. The DOC yields in the Danshuei River Basin were positively correlated with temperature and population density and also correlated with some types of landuse/cover. They exhibited positive correlations with percentages of paddy, building and bamboo, and negative correlation with the percentage of natural forest, whereas they showed no significant correlation with that of artificial forest. The lack of correlation with the artificial forest might cause by weeding, which may bare some area and cause accumulation of litter on the ground. Such conditions may result in leakage of DOC out of the system and diminish the carbon retaining effects of the forest. It is noted that the apparent positive correlation with the percentage of bamboo in the watershed rested upon only one high point. More data are needed to confirm such a trend.
摘要......................................................I
Abstract.................................................II
致謝.....................................................IV
目錄......................................................V
表目錄..................................................VII
圖目錄.................................................VIII
第一章 緒論............................................1
1-1前言...............................................1
1-2碳循環.............................................1
1-3文獻回顧...........................................2
1-4研究目的...........................................3
第二章 材料與方法......................................4
2-1 淡水河流域........................................4
2-2 採樣與分析........................................5
2-2-1 採樣地點....................................5
2-2-2 採樣頻率....................................6
2-2-3 採樣方法....................................7
2-2-4 分析項目....................................7
2-3 流量模擬模式......................................7
2-3-1 模式參數之濾定..............................9
2-4 基流分離模式.....................................10
2-5 土地利用資料.....................................10
2-5-1 蒐集航測影像及參考圖資.....................10
2-5-2 判釋底圖並數化.............................11
2-5-3 影像判釋取得使用屬性.......................11
2-5-4 外業調查及成果修正.........................12
2-5-5 成果整併及檢核.............................12
2-6 溶解性有機碳通量計算.............................13
第三章 結果...........................................15
3-1 流量.............................................15
3-2 雨量.............................................20
3-3 溶解性有機碳 (Dissolved Organic Carbon, DOC).....20
3-3-1 全流域年平均濃度...........................20
3-3-2 全流域乾、溼季平均濃度.....................20
3-4 溶解性有機碳之通量...............................21
3-5 土地利用類型/土地覆蓋............................21
第四章 討論...........................................23
4-1 流量.............................................23
4-2 溶解性有機碳濃度.................................23
4-2-1 溶解性有機碳濃度全年變化...................24
4-2-2 季節上變化.................................24
4-2-3 流量影響...................................24
4-3 溶解性有機碳通量.................................25
4-3-1 年輸出通量.................................26
4-3-2 季節性變化.................................28
4-3-3 流量影響...................................28
4-4 土地利用.........................................28
4-5 土地利用對溶解性有機碳通量之影響.................29
第五章 總結..............................................31
中文參考資料.............................................32
英文參考文獻.............................................33
中文參考資料
詹喬嵐,2000,集水區土地利用變遷對地表逕流之影響,國立中興大學土木工程學系
黃榆茗,2003,新店溪流域土地利用型態與逕流特性之研究,中國文化大學地學研究所
郭振民,1999,應用遙測與地理資訊系統於分佈型降雨-逕流模式之研究,國立成功大學水利及海洋工程學系
蘇竹君,2008,氣候變遷與土地利用改變對石門水庫集水區之流量與泥砂產量影響,國立中興大學土木工程研究所
韓孟志,2004,河岸土地使用與植生緩衝帶特性對水質影響之研究--以七家灣溪濱水區為例,中國文化大學景觀學系碩士班
經濟部水利署網站http://www.wra.gov.tw/
經濟部水利署北區水資源局http://www.wranb.gov.tw/wranb_spring/index1.asp
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國土測繪中心

英文參考文獻
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Arnold, J.G and P.M. Allen. 1999. Automated methods for estimating baseflow and ground water recharge from streamflow records. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 35(2): 411-424.
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Vertical change in dissolved organic carbon and oxygen at the water table region of an aquifer recharged with stormwater: biological uptake or mixing? Biogeochemistry 99: 31-47.
Billett, M. F., Parker-Jervis, F., FitzPatrick, E. A. and Cresser, M. S. 1990. Forest soil chemical changes between 1949/50 and 1987. Journal of Soil Science. 41: 45-133.
David B. Baker, R. Peter Richards, Timothy T. Loftus, and Jack W. Kramer. 2004. A new flashiness index: characteristics and applications to Midwestern rivers and streams. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 503-522.
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Willams Michael., Charles Hopkinson., Edward Rastetter., Joseph Vallino and Luc Claessens. 2004. Relationships of land use and stream solute concentrations in the Ipswich river basin, Northeastern Massachusetts. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 161:55-74.
Yapo, P.O., Gupta, H.V., Sorooshian, S. (1998) Multi-objective global optimization for hydrologic models, Journal of Hydrology 204, 83-97.
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