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研究生:楊雅喬
研究生(外文):Joanna Yachiao Yang
論文名稱:集權主義文化下顧客認知之關係利益(損失)及回應方式
論文名稱(外文):Relationship (dis)benefits in collectivist contexts customer perceptions and operational tactics
指導教授:王慕容王慕容引用關係
指導教授(外文):James Oliver Stanworth
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:關係利益關係利益損失關係回應方式集體主義關鍵事件法
外文關鍵詞:Relationship benefitsRelationship disbenefitsTacticsCollectivist contextCritical Incident Technique
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服務關係建立在顧客與員工間的互動之上。過去的文獻大多探討顧客對於從服務關係中所得到的利益(relationship benefit),但對某些趨避建立關係的顧客來說,其從關係中可能會獲得利益損失(relationship disbenefit),這些利益損失可能會促使顧客主動終止此段關係或轉移至其他服務供應者,進而造成企業的損失。此外,在互動過程中,除了服務提供者之外,顧客亦被視為服務的「共同生產者」,但歷史文獻大多著重於探討服務提供者在關係中的行為及關係回應方式(tactic),而忽略了顧客在其中呈現的行為。根據以往的文獻,我們發現探討顧客認知中的利益損失以及顧客對於服務關係的回應行為的相關文獻相當有限且缺乏,因此,本研究將探討顧客認知下使其獲得利益以及利益損失的因素為何,以及其會以什麼行為或回應方式來反應在此關係中的認知,以呈現因應此段關係的最佳方式。
在不同規範、行為以及衡量標準之下,文化背景對於服務具有相當大的影響。與西方社會比較之下,集體主義(collectivist)文化中的顧客較著重與他人的關係,故在服務關係的互動中會考量自身行為的合適度,以及傾向與服務提供者維持良好的關係已達理想的結果。在東西方文化差異的考量下,本研究將著重於探討東方社會中顧客對於利益及利益損失的認知,並試圖歸納東方顧客對於服務關係的行為及回應方式為何。
本研究以深度訪談方法,與16位受訪者進行深度面談,並以關鍵事件法(Critical Incident Technique)為基準,蒐集對受訪者的消費者為產生關鍵影響的事件,對蒐集結果進行分析及歸納後,找出東方人所認知的15個關係利益、6個關係利益損失,以及12個對於服務關係的回應方式(包含6個正面方式以及6個負面方式)。研究結果可提供服務提供者了解集體主義社會中的顧客對於關係利益(損失)以及對於關係的回應方式,以幫助發展或改善其服務模式。
關鍵詞:關係利益、關係利益損失、關係回應方式、集體主義、關鍵事件法


Service is inherently relational in its focus on customer-staff interaction. Extant research considers either customer or organizational perspectives on benefits derived from service relationships. For customers in relationship mode extant research, practitioners follow the broad assumption that customer desire relationships. However, for customers adverse to relational contexts such interaction potentially develops disbenefits. Minimal research on this issue invites further investigation. In interactions customers are understood as co-producers of service, but the understanding of how customers perform their role through use of tactics to achieve desired relational outcomes is lacking.
Context has a significant impact on service as local norms impact expectations, actions and evaluations. In the Chinese context, individuals define themselves in relation to others through socially appropriate behaviors and operation of these contacts provides the mechanism to achieve a range of desired outcomes. In the consideration of the differences between contexts, the customer perceived (dis)benefits and tactics in interaction in the Chinese context are examined.
The data is used to re-examine extant definition of customer perceive relational benefits, define (dis)benefits and derive tactics by which customers operate the encounter to achieve these ends.
Sixteen in-depth interviews based on the critical incident technique method were done for analyzing to present the relationship (dis)benefits and tactics from customer perspectives. In the study, 15 benefits, 6 disbenefits, and 12 tactics, which include 6 positive and 6 negative ones, were found in the Chinese context. The study provides service providers with the ideas of relationship (dis)benefits customers perceive and the possible tactics customers react to help them develop or improve their service modes conducted in the Chinese context.

Keywords: Relationship (dis)benefits, Tactics, Collectivist context, Critical Incident Technique

TABLE OF CONTENTS III
LIST OF FIGURES V
LIST OF TABLES VI
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Customer and service provider perceptions of relationships 4
2.1 Relationship marketing 4
2.1.1 What is relationship? 4
2.1.2 What is relationship marketing? 5
2.1.3 Why is relationship marketing so important? 6
2.2 What is relationship benefit? 7
2.3 Customer perceptions of relationship (dis)benefits 7
2.3.1 Relationship benefits for customers 7
2.3.2 Relationship disbenefits for customers 8
2.4 Relationships in the Chinese context 9
Chapter 3 Methodology 12
3.1 The critical incident technique 12
3.2 Different forms of CIT 13
3.2.1 SIT 13
3.2.2. CCIT 13
3.2.3 SPAT 14
3.2.4 APAT (Advocacy Path Analysis Technique) 15
3.3 Data collection procedure 17
3.3.1 Phase I: Pilot in-depth interview 17
3.3.2 Phase II: Main data collection phase through CIT 18
Sampling 18
Instrument used in data collection 20
Interview guideline 21
Data collection procedure 22
3.4 Data Analysis 22
3.4.1 Grounded analysis 22
3.4.2 Nvivo software 23
Open coding 23
Axial coding 23
Application of coding procedure 24
Chapter 4 Relationship (dis)benefits from customers perceptions 25
4.1 Results 25
4.2 Relationship benefits and disbenefits in collectivist context 27
4.2.1 Relationship benefits 27
SIT 27
CCIT 29
APAT 29
4.2.2 Relationship disbenefits 33
CCIT 33
SPAT 33
4.3 Customer tactics for managing relationships 36
CCIT 36
SPAT 36
APAT 36
Chapter 5 Discussion 41
5.1 Relationship benefits in collectivist context 41
5.2 Relationship disbenefits in collectivist context 43
5.3 Customer tactics in collectivist context 45
Chapter 6 Conclusion and limitation 48
6.1 Conclusion 48
6.2 Managerial implication 49
6.3 Limitation and future research 49
REFERENCE 50
APPENDIX A PILOT INTERVIEW GUIDELINE IN ENGLISH 54
APPENDIX B PILOT INTERVIEW GUIDELINE IN CHINESE 55
APPENDIX C INTERVIEW GUIDELINE IN ENGLISH 56
APPENDIX D INTERVIEW GUIDELINE IN CHINESE 60
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Research structure 3
Figure 2 The relationship spectrum 4
Figure 3 Relationship (dis)benefits and tactics 26
Figure 4 Purchase process 27
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Definitions of relationship marketing (RM) 5
Table 2 Relationship benefits from Gwinner et al.’s research 8
Table 3 Dimension of cultural values 10
Table 5 The significance of the concepts for CCIT (modified) 14
Table 4 A comparison of different CITs regarding their degree of consequence for the relationship (modified) 16
Table 6 Pilot interviewees’ profile 17
Table 7 Characteristic of high contact services 19
Table 8 Interviewees’ profile 20
Table 9 Numbers of collected incidents 25
Table 10 Evaluations on service steps 28
Table 11 Relationship benefits in CCIT 30
Table 12 Relationship benefits in APAT 32
Table 13 Relationship disbenefits in CCIT 34
Table 14 Relationship disbenefits in SPAT 35
Table 15 Tactics in CCIT 37
Table 16 Tactics in SPAT 39
Table 17 Tactics in APAT 40
Table 18 Comparisons with Gwinner et al.’s research 41




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