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研究生:吳孟珊
研究生(外文):Mengshan Wu
論文名稱:輸入處理文法教學法對台灣學生學習英語最高級之成效探討
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Processing Instruction on Taiwan Junior High School Students Learning the English Superlative Construction
指導教授:龔慧懿龔慧懿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hui-i Kung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:輸入處理文法教學法英語最高級句型
外文關鍵詞:Processing Instrucitonthe English Superlative Construction
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文法教學在第二語言的學習領域中一直扮演著不可或缺的角色,而且有關輸入與輸出的相關議題也持續被第二語言學習的研究者所討論着。在台灣,許多英語老師強調使用溝通式教學法教英文,但他們似乎在課堂中仍著重句型的教學。本研究旨在探討輸入處理教學法(Processing Instruction)對於台灣國中學生學習英語形容詞最高級句型之教學成效。參加本研究的對象為中台灣某國中兩個八年級常態班共計五十八位同學。其中一班接受強調輸出練習的傳統英語教學法,另外一班接受強調學習者有意義的輸入處理的文法教學法。在三節四十五分鐘的教學前、後及一個月後施予兩班學生前測、立即後測和延遲後測來評量學生理解與使用此文法結構的能力。結果顯示輸入處理的文法教學法和傳統英語教學法一樣有效。兩組學生在立即後測及延遲後測中的表現,都較前測有顯著性的進步,但兩組間整體而言並無差異。在兩個後測的結果中,不管在理解或輸出的練習中,皆無法觀察到兩組間有顯著差異。本研究結果顯示輸入處理教學法能有效幫助學生學習英語最高級句型並因此可以提供台灣的第二語言學習課程另一個替代性的文法教學法。
Grammar instruction has played an indispensable role in the field of second language acquisition and the issues about input vs. output have been discussed by the SLA researchers. In Taiwan, though many English teachers claim that they use the communicative approach to teach English, they seem to focus on structures in the classroom. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of processing instruction (PI) on Taiwanese junior high school students learning the English superlative forms of adjectives. The participants were 58 second-year junior high school students from two mixed-level classes in central Taiwan. One class received traditional grammar instruction (TI) which focuses on the learners’ output practice and the other class received PI which focuses on the learners’ meaningful input processing. A test accessing the participants’ interpretative knowledge and productive ability of the target structure was administered to them as the pretest, the immediate posttest and the delayed posttest before, after and one month after three 45-minute classes. The results indicated that PI is as effective as TI. Both groups performed significantly better on the immediate and the delayed posttests than the pretest. No difference was in the tests as a whole. Nor were significant differences observed between the PI and the TI groups either in the interpretation task or in the production task of the two posttests. The findings suggest that PI can effectively benefit junior high school students learning this target structure and thus be used in Taiwan EFL classrooms as an alternative way to teach grammar.
Key words: processing instruction, the English superlative construction

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ABSTRACT(ENGLISH)…………………………………………………i
ABSTRACT(CHINESE)……………………………………….... ..……ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………..iii
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………...…. vi
LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………viii

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………..1
Background of the Study……………………………………………. 1
Rationale of the Study………………………………………….......8
Purpose of the Study…………………………………………..... ....11
Research Questions………………………………………….....11
Significance of the Study……………………………………….. ....11
Definitions of Terms……………………………………………12

CHPATER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………….14
The Role of Grammar Instruction in the Second/Foreign Language Curriculum…………………………………………………………14
Focus on Forms, Focus on Meaning and Focus on Form………….17
Various Approaches to Focus on Form……………………..………20
The Nature of Processing Instruction……………………………...27
Major Components in PI…………………………………....32
Studies Favoring PI…………………………………………….42
Studies Showing Comparable Effects of PI and other Types of Instruction……………………………………………………...50
Studies Showing Disfavoring PI……………………………….53
Studies on the Learning of English Comparative and Superlative Forms ……………………………………………………………..58
Studies on Grammar Form-focused Instruction Studies in
Taiwan……………………………………………………………....59

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………64 Participants…………………………………………………………64
Instruments…………………………………………………………64
Instructional Packages………………………………………………..64
Assessment Tasks...…………………………………………….69
Scoring and Analysis…………………………………………………….….73
Procedures of Data Collection……………………………………...76
The Pilot Study………………………………………………..78

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION………………………………………79
Results………………………………………………………………79
Comparison of the Pretest of the PI and the TI Group……….79
Comparison between the Pretest and the Immediate Posttest of the PI and the TI Groups……………………………………….79
Comparison between the Pretest and the Delayed Posttest of the PI and the TI Groups…………………………………………..84
Discussion………………………………………………………….89
Effects of PI …………………….……..………………………89
Relative Effects of PI and TI………………………………90
Relative Effects of PI and TI on the Interpretation Task…….91
Relative Effects of PI and TI on the Production Task………..94
Lasting Effects of PI………………………………………..95

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………97
Findings of the Study……………………………………………….97
Pedagogical Implications…………………………………………...99
Limitations of the Study…………………………………………100
Suggestions for Further Research…………………………………100
REFERENCES……………………………………………………….102
APPENDIX A………………………………………………………….111
APPENDIX B………………………………………………………….112
APPENDIX C………………………………………………………….114
APPENDIX D………………………………………………………….117

LISTS OF TABLES
Page
Table 2.1 Principles of Input Processing: Principle One ……….30
Table 2.2 Principles of Input Processing: Principle Two……….31
Table 2.3 Summary of the Studies Favoring PI ……………………..47
Table 2.4 Summary of the Studies Disfavoring PI…………………..57
Table 3.1 Pearson Correlation of the Assessment Task Test and Retest for Reliability………………………………………………73
Table 3.2 Summary of the Scores and Percentage Scores of the Interpretation and Production Section of the Test…………75
Table 4.1 Independent Samples T-tests Comparing the PI and the TI Groups’ Pretest Scores………………………………....….79
Table 4.2 T-tests Comparing the Pretest and the Immediate Posttest Scores ……………………………………………………80
Table 4.3 Independent Samples T-tests Comparing the PI and the TI Groups’ Posttest Scores……………………………………81
Table 4.4 T-tests Comparing the PI and the TI Groups’ Pretest and the Immediate Posttest Scores in the Interpretation Section......81
Table 4.5 T-tests Comparing the PI and the TI Groups’ Pretest and the Immediate Posttest Scores in the Production Section……..82
Table 4.6 Independent Samples T-tests Comparing the PI and the TI Groups’ Posttest Scores in the Interpretation Test…..…….83
Table 4.7 Independent Samples T-tests Comparing the PI and the TI Groups’ Posttest Scores in the Production Test…………...83

Table 4.8 Summary of the Results Comparing the Posttest Scores between the Two groups………………..…………………84
Table 4.9 T-tests Comparing the Pretest and the Delayed Posttest Scores ……………………………………….…………….84
Table 4.10 Independent Samples T-tests Comparing the PI and the TI Groups’ Delayed Posttest Scores……………………..…...85
Table 4.11 Independent Samples T-tests Comparing the PI and the TI Groups’ Delayed Posttest Scores in the Interpretation Task………………………………………………………..85
Table 4.12 Independent Samples T-tests Comparing the PI and the TI Groups’ Delayed Posttest Scores in the Production Task…86
Table 4.13 Summary of the Results Comparing the Delayed Posttest Scores between the Two Groups…………………………..86

LISTS OF FIGURES
Page
Figure 2.1 Input Processing and Intake in Second Language
Acquisition ………………………...….…………………..28
Figure 2.2 A Sketch of Basic Processes in Acquisition………....……29
Figure 3.1 Overview of the Procedure………………………………77
Figure 4.1 Mean Scores of the PI and the TI Groups in the Overall Performances ……………………………………………..87
Figure 4.2 Mean Scores of the PI and the TI Groups in the Interpretation Tasks…………………………………….....88
Figure 4.3 Mean Scores of the PI and the TI Groups in the Production Tasks…………………………………………………..…..89

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