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研究生:林郁雯
研究生(外文):Yu-wne Lin
論文名稱:字母拼讀教學法及重複閱讀對台灣國小五年級學童閱讀流暢度之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Phonics Instruction and Repeated Reading on Oral Reading Fluency for Taiwanese EFL Fifth Graders
指導教授:郭鳳蘭郭鳳蘭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Feng-lan Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:兒童英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:識字能力閱讀口語流暢度重複閱讀字母拼讀教學法閱讀正確度每分鐘閱讀字數
外文關鍵詞:word recognitionoral reading fluencyrepeated reading practicephonics instructionaccuracyWCPM
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Chall (1996)提出閱讀學習是階段性發展的,其中閱讀口語流暢度在識字及閱讀理解之間的連結,扮演重要的角色。根據Artiles and Trent (1994),以英語為母語的學生若是在小學三年級未能學好閱讀,極有可能面臨未來閱讀的困難。許多研究驗證了重複閱讀能有效提升口語閱讀流暢度(Hasbrouck et al., 1999; Meyer & Felton, 1999; Rashotte&Torgesen, 1985),Huxley (2006)更提出輔助性重複閱讀可針對不同學生的需求,搭配適合的字母拼讀教學法。然而,在台灣以英語為外語的學習環境下,口語閱讀流暢度訓練經常被忽略,因此本實驗分別採用字母拼讀教學法、重複閱讀、及結合以上兩種教學法來檢視其對小學五年級學童的識字能力及閱讀口語流暢度之效用。本實驗分別採用TOWRE及DIBELS等兩項標準化測驗來測量這些學童的識字能力及閱讀口語流暢度。結果顯示:在三組實驗組中,重覆閱讀對於提升閱讀口語流暢度較為有效;字母拼讀教學法及重覆閱讀對於提升非字解碼能力皆有幫助;台灣五年級國小學童的口語流暢度表現可與以英語為母語學生的一年級來做比較;國內五年級學童平均一週進步1.4個字,可視為較適合的目標;另外,根據學童在前後測文章的表現,受試者的平均正確度處於挫折水準。本實驗證實重複閱讀在以英語為外語的學習環境同樣有效。從本實驗可得知,在教導閱讀時,應更重視具理論基礎的教學步驟以及閱讀口語流暢度的測量。如此一來,可幫助學生在閱讀發展中順利從識字階段跨越到閱讀口語流暢度的階段,而教師也能藉由測驗結果來監控學生的進度,藉以預防將來的閱讀困難。
Chall (1996) proposed that learning to read is developmental, in which oral reading fluency plays a vital role in connecting word recognition with reading comprehension. According to Artiles and Trent (1994), English speaking children who do not learn to read by third grade are risk for continued difficulty with reading. Numerous studies examined the effectiveness of repeated reading practice on oral reading fluency (Hasbrouck et al., 1999; Meyer & Felton, 1999; Rashotte&Torgesen, 1985). Huxley (2006) proposed that assisted repeated reading practice could be paired with appropriate phonics instruction as a way of addressing instructional needs of students. However, oral reading fluency training is often neglected in Taiwan’s EFL environment. Therefore, the present study respectively implemented phonics instruction, repeated reading, and the integration of the both to examine the effects in enhancing Taiwanese fifth-graders’ word recognition and oral reading fluency. To measure students’ word recognition and oral reading fluency performance,the Test of Word Reading Efficiency(TOWRE) and the Dynamic Indicator of Basic Early Literacy Skills(DIBELS) were adopted. Results revealed: (1) among the three experimental conditions, repeated reading practice is significantly effective in improving oral reading fluency, (2) both phonics instruction and repeated reading practice were significantly effective in enhancing nonword decoding skills, (3) Taiwanese EFL students’ ORF performance could be compared with the first graders of English speaking children and 1.4 words growth may be an appropriate goal for EFL students under a 80-minute training session per week, (4) based on the subjects’ performance in reading the text in the pre- and posttest, the participants’ average accuracy was at the frustration level. The results of this study supported that repeated reading practice can also be used to develop Taiwanese EFL learner’s oral reading fluency at the elementary school level. Research-based teaching procedures and the measurement of oral reading fluency should be emphasized in teaching reading to help students progress from word-recognition stage to the oral reading fluency stage in the reading development and enable reading teachers to monitor the students’ progress to prevent them from future reading failure.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT (Chinese version)………………………………… i
ABSTRACT (English version)…………………… iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………… v
LIST OF CONTENTS………………………… …vi
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………… viii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Research Motivations and Rationale 4
Purpose and Research Questions 7
Significance of the Study 9
Definition of Terms 9

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 12
The Development of Reading 12
The Definition and the Significance of Oral Reading Fluency 15
Specific Approaches for Phonics Instruction 17
Traditional phonics approach 18
Constructivist approach 18
Fluency Instruction Approaches 21
Repeated Reading 21
Unassisted repeated reading practice 24
Assisted repeated reading practice 25
Reading Fluency Measurement 28
Curriculum-Based Measurement………………………………29
TOWRE 33
DIBELS 34
Summary 35

CHAPTER THREE: METHODS 37
Pilot Study for Selecting Teaching Materials 37
Participants 41
Instruments 42
Proficiency. ……………………………………………………42
Word Reading Fluency 43
Oral Reading Fluency 43
The Experimental Design 45
Teaching materials 45
Procedures ……………………………….46
Data Analysis 55

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 56
Effect of Phonics Instruction and Repeated Reading Practice on Taiwanese EFL Fifth Graders’ SWE, PDE, and ORF Performance 56
The Comparison of Taiwanese EFL Fifth Graders’ WCPM with the Norms of the English speaking children 63
The Taiwanes EFL Fifth Graders’ Level of Performance for Word Decoding Accuracy 66

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION 69
Major Findings of the Present Study 69
Effects of Phonics Instruction on Improving Taiwanese EFL Fifth Graders’ SWE, PDE, and ORF Performance 69
Effects of Repeated Reading Practice on Improving Taiwanese EFL Fifth Graders’ SWE, PDE, and ORF Performance 70
The Comparison of the Performance of the Subjects Receiving the Three Experimental Treatments with the Norms of English Speaking Children 72
The Taiwanese EFL Fifth Graders’ Level of Performance for Word Decoding Accuracy 72
Pedagogical Implications 73
Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Future Study 75
Summary 78

REFERENCES 81

APPENDICES 91
APPENDIX A Revised TOWRE SWE and PDE Word List 91
APPENDIX B DIBELS ORF Passage 92
APPENDIX C ORF Passages for Pilot Study 93
APPENDIX D A Sample Read Naturally Story 94
APPENDIX E Sample Lesson Plan 96


LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Hasbrouck and Tindal’s (2006) Oral Reading Fluency Norms 31
Table 3.1 The Vowel Sounds That the Six Selected Students Can Pronounce 40
Table 3.2 The Total Number of Students and Gender Distribution of the Four Classes 41
Table 3.3 The Target Sounds of Each Story 46
Table 3.4 The Schedule for the Experiment 47
Table 3.5 A Comparison of the Three Experimental Groups 54
Table 4.1 SWE Means for Each Group…………………57
Table 4.2 SWE Results of the Two-way ANOVA……………57
Table 4.3 PDE Means for Each Group…………............58
Table 4.4 PDE Results of the Two-way ANOVA 59
Table 4.5 WCPM Means for Each Group 61
Table 4.6 WCPM Results of the Two-way ANOVA 61
Table 4.7 Accuracy Means for Each Group………………….62
Table 4.8 Accuracy Results of the Two-way NOVA………… 63
Table 4.9 Descriptive Statistics of the ORF Scores of the Four Groups……… 65
Table 4.10 The Number and the Percentage of Students in Each Level of Accuracy Performance among the Four Group ……… 67




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