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研究生:曾涵芸
論文名稱:從名詞與形容詞的關聯性探討英文形容詞的學習
論文名稱(外文):When Adjectives Meet Nouns: the Effect of Nouns on EFL Learners’ English Adjective Learning
指導教授:郭怡君郭怡君引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:外國語言學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:形容詞學習形容詞類別
外文關鍵詞:adjective learningadjective types
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本篇研究探討以中文為母語的小學生在學習英文形容詞時,形容詞與後面名詞的關聯性。本篇的研究主題為名詞的明確指示性是否會影響小學生學習形容詞,以及六種形容詞類別(Dixon, 1982; Frawley, 1992)-尺寸(DIMENSION),顏色(COLOR),價值(VALUE),年齡(AGE),人格習性(HUMAN PROPENSITY),物理特質(PHYSICAL PROPERTY)-和名詞的關係是否會影響形容詞語意的學習。在本文研究範疇內,總共有四十位小學四年級的學童參與研究。實驗討論分為兩部份:實驗一、形容詞後面跟著一個有明確指示的名詞;實驗二、形容詞後面跟著一個沒有明確指示物的名詞(one)。
以獨立樣本T檢定,檢視實驗一、實驗二以名詞為變數的形容詞學習,結果呈顯著差異。學習者在明確指示的名詞狀態下表現較佳。以混合設計二因子變異數分析,檢視六種形容詞類別與兩種名詞類別,其結果顯示兩者間有交互作用。經由單純主要效果檢定與事後比較分析得知:(一)、形容詞類別為尺寸和物理特質時,學習者在明確指示名詞的表現較佳。(二)、在明確指示名詞的情況下,人格習性比起價值,年齡與物理特質,語意更容易被學習者掌握; 尺寸的語意比起價值與年齡更容易被學習。(三)、在沒有明確指示物的名詞情況下,學習者在顏色和年齡的語意掌控較物理特質佳。以混合設計二因子變異數分析,檢視兩種修飾方法與兩種名詞類別,其結果顯示兩者間沒有交互作用。經主要效果檢定與事後比較分析得知:(一)、學習者在明確指示名詞的表現較佳。(二)、學習者在實意名詞修飾(categorematic modification)表現比虛意名詞修飾(syncategorematic modification)好。

The purpose of this study is to investigate how six types of adjectives — DIMENSION, COLOR, VALUE, AGE, HUMAN PROPENSITY, PHYSICAL PROPERTY (Dixon, 1982; Frawley, 1992) — and two types of nouns (i.e. general vs. specific) affect EFL learners in learning English adjectives. The participants were 40 students approximately 11 years old. The experiment includes two conditions: Condition I with a specific noun type and Condition II with a general noun type.
The results of an independent T-test shows a significant difference—participants performed better in specific noun condition than in general noun condition. A mixed-design two-way ANOVA examined the interaction of six adjective types and two types of nouns, and the results shows an interaction effect. The comparisons of the post hoc tests show that first, when adjective types are DIMENSION and PHYSICAL PROPERTY, participants performed better in specific nouns. Second, when collocating with a specific noun-participants’ performance of HUMAN PROPENSITY and DIMENSION are better than other adjective types. Third, when collocating with a general noun-participants’ performance of HUMAN PROPENSITY, COLOR and PHYSICAL PROPERTY are better than other adjective types. On the other hand, there is no interaction effect between two modification ways and two noun types. The comparisons of the post hoc tests show that participants performed better in specific nouns and in categorematic modification.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents i
List of Tables v
List of Figures vii
Acknowledgement viii
Abstract x
Chinese Abstract xi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Literature Review 7
2.1. Children’s Adjective Learning 8
2.1.1. Adjective-noun interpretation 10
2.1.2. Basic-level category facilitates adjective learning 11
2.1.3. Specificity of noun 12
2.1.4. Difference between one and thing 15
2.2. Categorization of Nouns 17
2.2.1. Superordinate category 18
2.2.2. Basic-level category 18
2.2.3. Subordinate category 19
2.2.4. Basic-level effect 21
2.3. Semantics of Adjectives 22
2.3.1. Property concepts 22
2.3.2. Categorematic modification and syncategorematic modification 24
2.3.3. Six adjective types 26
2.4. Summary 29
Chapter 3 Methodology 31
3.1. The Preliminary Study 31
3.1.1. Participants 31
3.1.2. Materials 32
3.1.3. Procedures 33
3.1.4. Results and discussion 34
3.2. The Experiment 36
3.2.1. Participants 36
3.2.2. Materials 37
3.2.2.1. Background of Warren’s corpus 37
3.2.2.2. Procedures of analyzing Warren’s corpus 38
3.2.2.3. Testing materials 43
3.2.3. Procedures 51
3.3. Data Analysis 53
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion 54
4.1. Results of Specific and General Noun Type 54
4.2. Results of Six Adjective Types and Two Noun Types 56
4.2.1. Six adjective types and two noun types 57
4.2.2. Simple main effect of six adjective types and two noun types 59
4.2.2.1 Discussion of the post hoc tests 60
4.3. Results of Two Modification Ways and Two Noun Types 64
4.3.1. Main effect and the post hoc tests of the two modification ways 65
4.3.2. Discussion 67
4.4. Error Analysis 68
4.5. Summary 76
Chapter 5 Conclusions 78
5.1. Summary of the Major Findings 78
5.2. Limitations and Implications 79
References 81
Appendix 1 Testing Materials in the Preliminary Study 89
Appendix 2 Background of 20 Children of Warren’s Corpus 92
Appendix 3 Adjectives Distribution in Warren’s Corpus 93
Appendix 4 Categorization Distribution of Adjective Types 94
Appendix 5 Testing Materials 97
Appendix 6 Cards of Novel Adjectives 98
Appendix 7 Arrangement of the Order of Testing Materials 105
Appendix 8 Chinese Consent Form 108
Appendix 9 English Consent Form 109


List of Tables
Table 1: Adjective Types (Frawley,1992) 26
Table 2: Summary of Independent T-test of Condition 1 and Condition 2 35
Table 3: Summary of Independent T-test of the Midterm English Scores between Two Groups 37
Table 4: Token Distribution in Warren’s Corpus 39
Table 5: Adjectives Appearing in Warren’s Corpus 40
Table 6: Distribution of Levels of Categorization of Adjective-Noun Collocation 42
Table 7: Twelve Testing Adjective Phrases 45
Table 8: Percentage of Agreement of Modification ways 46
Table 9: Background of Participants in Picture Naming Test 49
Table 10: Background of Participants in Revised Picture Naming Test 50
Table 11: Responses of Picture Naming Test 51
Table 12: Summary of Independent T-test of Specific and General Noun Types 55
Table 13: Summary of ANOVA Analysis of Two Noun Types and Six Adjective Types 57
Table 14: Summary of Simple Main Effect (Statistic Description) 58
Table 15: Summary of Simple Main Effect (ANOVA Analysis) 60
Table 16: Summary of the pos hoc tests(Scheffe) of Simple Main Effect 61
Table 17: Summary of ANOVA Analysis of Two Noun Types and Two Modification Ways 65
Table 18: Summary of Main Effect of Two Modification Ways (Statistic Description) 66
Table 19: Summary of the post hoc tests (Scheffe) of Main Effect 66
Table 20: Choice Distribution of 12 Test Trials 68
Table 21: Choice Distribution of Superordinate Categories 75
Table 22: Summary of the Results of the Three Tests 76


List of Figures
Figure 1: An Example of Testing Materials in Preliminary Study 32
Figure 2: A Sample Trial 48
Figure 3: Results of the Comparison Between Noun Types 59

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