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研究生:陳威成
研究生(外文):Wei-Cheng Chen
論文名稱:落葵 (Basella alba L.) 漿果汁色澤及其相關色素安定性之探討
論文名稱(外文):Color-stability characterization of the juice and pigments derived from Basella alba L. fruits
指導教授:邱義源邱義源引用關係
指導教授(外文):Robin Y.-Y. Chiou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:落葵甜菜苷色素甜菜色素安定性試驗
外文關鍵詞:Basella alba L.betacyaninbetaninstability test
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成熟落葵 (Basella alba L.) 果實汁液為紫紅色,屬於甜菜苷 (Betalains) 型色素,具有開發作為天然色素之價值。本研究以落葵漿果為對象,對其色素成分於製備過程中及實際應用於產品製造時之安定性進行相關探討。首先探討殺菁處理對漿果色素成分及其所含 peroxidase 和 polyphenol oxidase 之影響,以漿果的色澤、酵素活性和抗氧化活性三者作為指標,探討漿果之最適殺菁條件,結果顯示漿果經 90oC 殺菁處理 0.5~4 分鐘,其吸光值和抗氧化能力與未殺菁者無顯著差異,而 peroxidase 和 polyphenol oxidase 兩種酵素分別經 0.5 和 2 分鐘的殺菁處理之後,即已全部失活。因此,本研究均採用 90oC 殺菁 2 分鐘後以果汁機榨汁,再以冷凍乾燥法製備落葵漿果色素粉末。將此粉末回溶後,分別進行色素成分定性分析和色澤安定性探討,以 HPLC 分析法比較四種紫紅色素成分的變化,即比較落葵四種色素成分 betanidin-dihexose、isobetanidin-dihexose、gomphrenin I 及 unknown peak 對熱處理的安定性,由結果得知色素液經 65oC 加熱 1 小時之後,其鍵結兩個六碳醣的 betanidin-dihexose 和 iso-betanidin-dihexose 比鍵結一個六碳醣的 gomphrenin I 和未知結構 (unknown peak) 的色素成分易於被破壞。在色澤方面,色素液以不同溫度 (4、30、50、65、80 及 90oC) 和 pH 值 (pH 3.0、pH 5.0 及 pH 7.0) 處理 2 小時,顯示色素液在 pH 5.0 之 citrate-phosphate buffer 溶液中,以高於 65oC 溫度加熱時,受熱破壞程度較經 pH 3.0 和 pH 7.0 處理 2 小時者小。當將色素液分別與 Na +、Ca2+、K+、Fe2+、Fe3+ 和 Mg2+ 等的氯化物離子混合,再經 65oC 加熱 15 分鐘後,僅發現 Fe2+ 和 Fe3+ 對色素液的色澤破壞較嚴重。另探討空氣和光線對色素安定性的影響時,首先將落葵漿果色素粉末回溶在 40% 甲醇溶液中,控制組為在其試管中充填氮氣者,處理組為未充填氮氣處理者,又再分成日照、室內光照及暗室三等種處理方式,於室溫下貯藏 6 天,結果顯示日照組對色澤的破壞程度較室內光照組和暗室組嚴重,而室內光照組和暗室組對色澤破壞程度則無差異。在實際應用上,本研究先將落葵漿果色素粉末添加 3% (w/v) 於製備麵團的水中,再用來製作麵包,將做好的麵包分別置於 4oC 及室溫下貯藏 3 天。前者可延緩色素麵包色澤的變化,但對降低麵包質地老化的程度則無差異。而在室溫條件下貯藏者,並沒有延緩色素麵包色澤的變化,卻可顯著延緩麵包質地的老化程度。整體而言,落葵果實色素雖然在極端 pH 值、高溫、直接日照和鐵離子等影響因子的存在下不安定,仍有其廣大的應用領域,將來可提供食品加工業者有價值的天然色素選擇。
The ripe fruits of Basella alba L. containing red-violet pigments of betalains are of potency in development of natural colorant. In this study, color stability of the juice pigments during fruits subjected to colorant preparation and the colorant used in bread preparation were investigated. When the fruits were blanched in hot water at 90oC for various intervals and followed by squeezing juices for determination of color absorbance, antioxidant, and enzyme activities of the peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Results showed that juice colors and antioxidant activities were stable up to 4 min of blanching, while the emzymic activities were inactivated in 2 min of blanching. Then, fruit colorant was prepared by subjecting fruits to blanching at 90oC for 2 min, squeezed to extract juices and lyophilized to prepare pigment powders. As further analyzed by HPLC, betanidin-dihexose and isobetanidin-dihexose at 65oCwere more unstable than gomphrenin I and the unknown pigment. When pigment powders were dissolved in citrate-phosphate buffer at various pH conditions (pH 3.0, pH 5.0 and pH 7.0) and temperatures (4, 30, 50, 65, 80 and 90oC), the pigment colors at pH 5.0 were more stable than at pH 3.0 and pH 7.0. As affected by metallic ions of Na+, Ca2+, K+, Fe2+, Fe3+ and Mg2+ , the stability of pigment colors were unstable with presence of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric ions (Fe3+). In investigation of effect of light and air on color stability of pigments, the powders dissolved in 40% methanolic water solution and were divided into two sublots. Tubes of one sublot were flushed with nitrogen prior to cap screwing and other tubes were capped with air. Then, tubes in each sublots were further divided into three groups and respectively stored under sunlight irradiation, room light irradiation and at dark at the ambient temperature for 6 days. The pigments were decomposed quickly under sunlight irradiation. Pigments at room light irradiation and dark ambient room temperature groups had no difference. As affected by oxygen in headspace of the tubes, the pigment solutions were stable during storage after nitrogen flushing of headspace. As applied the pigment powders for breads preparation, the water used in dough preparation was introduced with 3% (w/v) pigment powders prior to dough making. After baking, the breads were subjected to Hunter’s Lab colorimetric and sensory evaluation. Then the breads were stored at 4oC and room temperature for 3 days. As evaluated by color determination of Hunter’s Lab system, sensory evaluation, and texture profile detection, the bread colors were stable at 4oC. At room temperature, breads with introduction of the pigment powder were more stable against starch retrogradation. As generalized, even based on the fact that colors of the fruit pigments were more stable except at extreme pH conditions, irradiation of sunlight, presence of ferrous and ferric ions, the pigments are still of potency in application for a broad spectrum of foods as natural colorant or texture enhancer.
中文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------I
英文摘要-----------------------------------------------------III
目錄--------------------------------------------------------------------------V
表目錄--------------------------------------------------------------------------X
圖目錄------------------------------------------------------------------------XI
附錄---------------------------------------------------------------------------XIII
壹、前言-----------------------------------------------------------------------------1
貳、文獻回顧---------------------------------------------------------------------3
一、落葵----------------------------------------------------------------------3
(一) 落葵的種類及分佈------------------------------------------------3
(二) 落葵的性狀特徵---------------------------------------------------3
(三) 落葵的中藥學特性------------------------------------------------5
(四) 落葵的相關研究---------------------------------------------------6
(五) 天然抗氧化物------------------------------------------------------8
二、食用色素---------------------------------------------------------------11
(一) 天然色素----------------------------------------------------------12
(二) 人工合成色素----------------------------------------------------22
三、甜菜色素簡介---------------------------------------------------------26
(一) 一般性質----------------------------------------------------------26
(二) Betalains之結構與特性-----------------------------------------26
(三) Betalains之生合成-----------------------------------------------27
(四) Betalains來源-----------------------------------------------------29
(五) Betalains之生理活性--------------------------------------------29
四、殺菁處理---------------------------------------------------------------34
(一) 過氧化酶 (peroxidase, POX)---------------------------------34
(二) 多酚氧化酶 (polyphenol oxidase, PPO)---------------------35
五、抗氧化與自由基-----------------------------------------------------36
(一) 自由基簡介-------------------------------------------------------36
(二) 自由基種類-------------------------------------------------------36
(三) 體內自由基來源與傷害----------------------------------------38
(四) 抗氧化劑作用原理及機制-------------------------------------38
六、質地分析簡介--------------------------------------------------------40
參、實驗材料與方法-------------------------------------------------------43
一、實驗架構-------------------------------------------------------------43
二、實驗材料-------------------------------------------------------------44
三、化學試劑--------------------------------------------------------44
四、儀器及相關設備--------------------------------------------------46
五、實驗方法------------------------------------------------------48
(一) 漿果殺菁對色素變化之影響---------------------------------48
1. 樣品製備------------------------------------------------48
2. 漿果色素變化--------------------------------------------48
3. 貯藏期間漿果色素之變化-------------------------------48
(二) 漿果殺菁對酵素變化之影響---------------------------------49
1. 過氧化酶活性測定-------------------------------------------49
2. 多酚氧化酶活性測定-----------------------------------------50
(三) 漿果殺菁對抗氧化活性變化之影響---------------------51
1. 樣品製備----------------------------------------------51
2. 總酚類化合物含量測定-------------------------------------51
3. TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) ----------52
4. 還原能力測定---------------------------------------------53
(四) 漿果殺菁前後對酵素變化之影響------------------------53
1. 樣品製備------------------------------------------------53
2. 溫度對漿果汁色素變化-----------------------------------54
3. pH 和溫度對色素之影響---------------------------------54
4. 金屬離子對色素安定性之影響---------------------------55
5. 光線和空氣對色素安定性之影響--------------------------55
(五) 落葵天然色素於食品系統安定性之探討------------------56
1. 樣品製備------------------------------------------------------56
2. 橄欖形麵包製程與配方-------------------------------------56
3. 色差分析------------------------------------------------------56
4. 質地分析-------------------------------------------------57
(六) 統計分析------------------------------------------------58
肆、結果與討論----------------------------------------------------------61
一、漿果殺菁處理後對色素變化之影響---------------------------61
(一) 漿果色素變化-------------------------------------------------61
(二) 貯藏期間漿果色素之變化-------------------------------61
二、漿果殺菁處理後對酵素活性之影響---------------------------62
三、漿果殺菁處理後對抗氧化活性之影響---------------------64
(一) 總酚類化合物含量比較------------------------------------64
(二) TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) 抗氧化
能力之比較----------------------------------------------64
(三) 還原能力之比較-------------------------------------65
四、漿果殺菁前後對酵素變化之影響------------------------65
(一) 溫度對漿果汁色素變化-----------------------------------66
(二) pH 和溫度對色素之影響-----------------------------67
(三) 金屬離子對色素安定性之影響-------------------------69
(四) 光線和空氣對色素安定性之影響-----------------------71
五、落葵天然色素應用於食品系統的安定性探討---------------72
(一) 色差分析------------------------------------------------72
(二) 質地分析------------------------------------------------------73
伍、結論---------------------------------------------------------------75
陸、參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------93
柒、個人資料---------------------------------------------------------------108
表目錄
頁次
表一、酚類化合物在植物中的主要分類--------------------------------------9
表二、合法天然著色劑---------------------------------------------------------11
表三、合法人工著色劑---------------------------------------------------------25
表四、Betacyanins 存在於自然界的分部情況-----------------------------31
表五、各質地物理參數定義----------------------------------------------41
表六、橄欖形麵包配方-----------------------------------------------------59
表七、麵包在室溫下貯藏期間 Lab 及總色差之變化-------------------89
表八、麵包在 4oC 下貯藏期間 Lab 及總色差之變化----------------90
表九、添加漿果汁對麵包室溫貯藏期間質地的影響-------------------91
表十、添加漿果汁對麵包4oC貯藏期間質地的影響--------------------92









圖目錄
頁次
圖一、落葵 (Basella alba L.) 植株及漿果之圖片-------------------------4
圖二、Betalains 的 1,7-重氮七聚物結構-----------------------------------28
圖三、甜菜色素生成途徑------------------------------------------------------29
圖四、質地剖面分析圖---------------------------------------------------------42
圖五、橄欖形麵包製作流程--------------------------------------------------60
圖六、落葵漿果在90oC殺菁不同時間其 530 nm 吸光度之變化----77
圖七、落葵漿果經不同時間殺菁其果汁在 4oC 及室溫儲藏之色素
吸光值變化--------------------------------------------------------------78
圖八、落葵漿果汁在避光室溫條件之 HPLC 色素變化---------------79
圖九、落葵漿果以 90oC 殺菁對 peroxidase 和 polyphenol oxidase
活性之變化--------------------------------------------------------------80
圖十、落葵漿果以 90oC 殺菁對其果汁總酚化合物含量之影響-----81
圖十一、落葵漿果以 90oC 殺菁對其果汁 Trolox equivalent
antioxidant capacity (TEAC) 之影響-------------------------------82
圖十二、落葵漿果以 90oC 殺菁對其果汁還原力之影響--------------83
圖十三、落葵漿果汁在 65oC 條件加熱不同時間其 HPLC 色素分
析圖譜-----------------------------------------------------------------84
圖十四、落葵漿果汁在 65oC 條件加熱不同時間其 HPLC 色素分析之變化---------------------------------------------------------------85
圖十五、漿果汁不同 pH 值下加熱溫度和時間對DI
(degradation index) 變化------------------------------------------86
圖十六、漿果汁金屬離子對色素安定性影響-----------------------------87
圖十七、漿果汁光線與空氣對色素安定性影響--------------------------88


















附錄
頁次
附錄圖一、各種於 pH 1 環境下從 strawberry、elderberry 和
black carrot 分離純化之花青素於95oC 下之半衰------109
附錄圖二、Betanin 受熱降解之各種可能途徑---------------------------110
附錄圖三、Betanin 在 85oC 下降解之各種可能途徑------------------111


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