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研究生:葉佳玲
研究生(外文):Chia-Lin Ye
論文名稱:噴灑有機酸液及熱收縮真空包裝改善冷藏鴨胸肉品質之試驗
論文名稱(外文):Improving Chilled Duck Breast Meat Quality with Spraying Organic Acids and Heat-Shrink Vacuum Package
指導教授:林高塚林高塚引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kou-Joong Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:動物科學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:有機酸熱收縮真空包裝鴨胸肉
外文關鍵詞:Organic acidsHeat-shrink vacuum packageDuck breast meat
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中文摘要
本試驗旨在探討噴灑有機酸液及熱收縮真空包裝改善冷藏鴨胸肉品質之試驗。試驗選取8週齡體重達3.3公斤北京鴨162隻,於標準屠宰作業流程後,取下胸大肌(Pectoralis major muscles)逢機分為4個處理組進行噴酸處理,分別為A:控制組、B:乳酸、檸檬酸、三聚合磷酸鈉及重碳酸鈉溶液、C: L96S溶液(磐昇公司)、D:乳酸、檸檬酸、三聚合磷酸鈉、重碳酸鈉及L96S混合溶液,依上述處理組分別噴洒0.25%之有機酸混合溶液,再進行熱收縮真空包裝後殺菌處理。將樣品以4°C冷藏貯存,並分別於第0、1、3、5天及1、2、3、4、5、6、7、8週進行品質分析,測定項目包括:pH值、色澤、揮發性鹽基態氮(VBN)、微生物品質、二硫巴比妥酸值(TBARS)、變性肌紅蛋白含量、保水力、蒸煮失重及截切值。
結果顯示,鴨胸肉冷藏貯存期間pH值、L值、a值、b值、TBARS值、VBN含量、變性肌紅蛋白含量、總生菌數及大腸桿菌群數隨貯存期間增加而上升(P<0.05);保水力、蒸煮失重及截切值隨貯存時間增加而下降(P<0.05)。各組間pH值於貯存至第5週時趨於平緩,且各組間無顯著差異,而貯存至第8週時,A組顯著高於其他各組(P<0.05);貯存期間,B, C, D組較A組有較高的L值和b值(P<0.05);VBN值及TBARS值於貯存至5週後快速上升,且A組之VBN值顯著高於各處理組(P<0.05),而D組之TBARS值低於各處理組。變性肌紅蛋白含量於冷藏貯存5天至第4週時,各組間無顯著差異。微生物品質方面,各組隨貯存期間增加而上升,而D組之大腸桿菌群於貯存至第6週後顯著較低(P<0.05); 貯存至第7週時A組之總生菌數含量已超過7log CFU/g,且顯著較高(P<0.05)。保水力、蒸煮失重與截切值於貯存期間有差異但並不顯著,惟截切值於貯存至7週後顯著下降,各組間無顯著差異。
綜上結果顯示,有機酸處理可降低屠肉表面總生菌數及大腸桿菌群數,且於冷藏貯存期間有較低之pH值,而有機酸處理中以D組有較低之pH值,VBN值,TBARS值,總生菌數及大腸桿菌群數。

Abstract
The objective of this study was to improving chilled duck breast meat quality with spraying organic acids and heat-shrink vacuum package. A total of 162 ducks were conventionally processed at 8wks of age that live weight were approximately 3.3kg, and they were slaughtered in a licensed poultry meat plant. Following standard slaughtered operation procedures, the Pectoralis major muscles were harvested from the carcasses, and divided into four groups randomly for organic acids spraying treatment. They were Group A: control, Group B: lactic acid, citric acid, tripolyphosphate, and sodium bicarbonate solution, Group C: L96S solution, Group D: lactic acid, citric acid, tripolyphosphate, sodium bicarbonate, and L96S solution. Then the breast muscle samples were sprayed with 0.25% prepared organic acids and heat-shrink vacuum packaged with post-packaging pasteurization. The treated samples were chilled storage at 0-4°C for 0, 1, 3, 5 d and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 wks. Changes of pH value, color, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value, microbiological properties, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, metmyoglobin content, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and shear force value were measured.

The results showed that the L value, a value, b value, pH value, TBARS value, VBN value, metmyoglobin content, total plate counts (TPC) and coliform groups were gradually increased with the increased storage time (P&lt;0.05), but the water holding capacity, cooking loss and shear force value were gradually decreased in the four treatment groups of acids treatment with the increased storage time (P&lt;0.05). The pH value was not significantly different between four treatment groups at 5 weeks of storage, and the pH value of A group was significantly higher than other treatment groups (P&lt;0.05). The L value and b value of B, C, D groups were higher than A group with the increased storage time (P&lt;0.05). The VBN value and TBARS value increased quickly after 5 weeks of storage, the VBN values of A group were significantly higher than other treatment groups (P&lt;0.05), the TBARS values of D group were significantly lower than other treatment groups (P&lt;0.05). The metmyoglobin content was not significantly different among four treatment groups at 5 day to 4 weeks of storage. The microbiological properties of four treatment groups were gradually increased with the increased storage time, the coliform groups of D group was lower than other treatment groups after 6 weeks of storage (P&lt;0.05), but the TPC of A Group was exceed 7 log CFU/g after 7 weeks of storage, and significantly higher (P&lt;0.05). The values of water holding capacity, cooking loss and shear force value were not significantly different, but the shear force value was significantly decrease after 7 weeks of storage (P&lt;0.05), and no significantly different among four treatment groups.

The above results showed that organic acid treatments reduce TPC and coliform groups, and there were lower pH value during storage time. And the pH value, VBN value, TBARS value and coliform groups of D group were lower than other treatment groups.

目 錄

壹、中文摘要-------------------------------------------- 1
Abstract------------------------------------------- 3
貳、前言----------------------------------------------- 6
參、文獻探討-------------------------------------------- 9
一、鴨隻的屠宰作業與屠體衛生----------------------------- 9
(一)活禽病原微生物的攜帶-------------------------------- 9
(二)屠宰加工過程中可能造成的汙染------------------------- 10
1. 屠前吊掛、電昏放血------------------------------- 11
2. 燙毛------------------------------------------ 11
3. 脫毛------------------------------------------ 12
4. 摘除內臟--------------------------------------- 12
5. 屠體清洗與冷卻---------------------------------- 13
6. 屠宰設備、用具及工作人員與家禽屠體之衛生品質-------- 13
(三)家禽屠體表面微生物的吸附作用------------------------ 14
(四)減少家禽屠體表面微生物污染之處理--------------------- 15
二、有機酸與肉品衛生------------------------------------ 18
(一)有機酸的種類及特性---------------------------------- 19
1. 醋酸及醋酸鹽類----------------------------------- 19
2. 乳酸及乳酸鹽類----------------------------------- 19
3. 檸檬酸及檸檬酸鹽類------------------------------- 22
4. 其他有機酸-------------------------------------- 22
(二)有機酸的作用機制------------------------------------ 25
(三)有機酸的抑菌效果----------------------------------- 27
(四)有機酸於肉品處理上之應用----------------------------- 29
1. 噴洒------------------------------------------ 30
2. 浸泡------------------------------------------ 30
(五)有機酸處理對食肉物理性及風味的影響-------------------- 32
1. 色澤------------------------------------------ 32
2. pH值------------------------------------------ 32
3. 保水性----------------------------------------- 33
三、磷酸鹽類於肉品處理上的應用--------------------------- 34
(一)磷酸鹽之種類及特性---------------------------------- 34
1. 正磷酸鹽--------------------------------------- 34
2. 聚合磷酸鹽類------------------------------------ 34
(二)磷酸鹽類的作用機制---------------------------------- 37
(三)磷酸鹽類在肉品處理上的應用--------------------------- 38
(四)磷酸鹽類對食肉物理性及風味的影響--------------------- 39
四、包裝技術與肉品衛生---------------------------------- 40
(一)包裝技術的應用歷史--------------------------------- 40
(二)包裝的目的與功能---------------------------------- 41
1. 目的----------------------------------------- 41
2. 功能----------------------------------------- 41
(三)肉品包裝技術-------------------------------------- 42
1. 真空包裝-------------------------------------- 44
2. 調氣包裝-------------------------------------- 44
3. 真空收縮包裝----------------------------------- 45
五、後殺菌技術之應用------------------------------------ 47
肆、材料與方法------------------------------------------ 49
一、詩驗材料與試驗設計---------------------------------- 49
(一)試驗材料------------------------------------------ 49
(二)試驗設計------------------------------------------ 50
二、試驗方法------------------------------------------- 53
(一)pH值--------------------------------------------- 53
(二)色澤 (Hunter L, a, b value)---------------------- 53
(三)揮發性鹽基態氮 (VBN value)------------------------- 53
(四)二硫巴比妥酸值 (TBARS value) ---------------------- 57
(五)變性肌紅蛋白含量 (Met Mb %)------------------------ 57
(六)保水力(Water Holding Capacity)-------------------- 58
(七)蒸煮失重(Cooking Loss)---------------------------- 59
(八)截切值 (Shear Force Value)------------------------ 59
(九)微生物品質----------------------------------------- 60
1. 總生菌數(Total Plate Counts)------------------ 60
2. 大腸桿菌群數(Coliform group counts)------------ 60
三、統計分析------------------------------------------- 61
伍、結果與討論------------------------------------------ 62
一、 生鮮北京鴨胸肉之品質特性---------------------------- 62
二、 不同有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮包裝對鴨胸肉冷藏貯存期間pH值之影響---------------------------------------------------- 64
三、 不同有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮包裝對鴨胸肉冷藏貯存期間色澤之影響---------------------------------------------------- 67
1.明亮度(L值)------------------------------------ 67
2.紅色度(a值)------------------------------------ 68
3.黃色度(b值)------------------------------------ 68
四、 不同有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮包裝對對鴨胸肉冷藏貯存期間揮發性鹽基態氮(VBN值)之影響--------------------------------- 72
五、 不同有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮包裝對鴨胸肉冷藏貯存期間微生物品質特性之影響------------------------------------------- 75
六、 不同有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮包裝對鴨胸肉冷藏貯存期間二硫巴比妥酸值(TBARS值)之影響--------------------------------- 79
七、 不同有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮包裝對鴨胸肉冷藏貯存期間變性肌紅蛋白(Metmyoglobin)之影響----------------------------- 82
八、 不同有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮包裝對鴨胸肉冷藏貯存期間保水力(WHC)之影響------------------------------------------ 85
九、 不同有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮包裝對鴨胸肉冷藏貯存期間蒸煮失重之影響------------------------------------------------ 87
十、 不同有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮包裝對鴨胸肉冷藏貯存期間截切值之影響-------------------------------------------------- 89
陸、結論---------------------------------------------- 91
柒、誌謝---------------------------------------------- 93
捌、參考文獻------------------------------------------- 94

表 次

附表一、產品殺菌處理方式---------------------------------- 16
附表二、殺菌處理方式分類及其有效性------------------------- 17
附表三、有機酸主要的物化特性------------------------------ 24
附表四、肉源性致病和腐敗微生物及其生長環境需求-------------- 28
附表五、磷酸鹽的分類、分子式、pH值、溶解度及其功能性應用----- 36
表六、生鮮鴨胸肉之物化特性-------------------------------- 63

圖 次

附圖一、有機酸在微生物細胞的作用機制----------------------- 26
附圖二、一般應用於肉類及家禽類製品上的有機酸之化學結構式------ 31
附圖三、新鮮紅肉相關色素肌紅蛋白之色澤--------------------- 46
圖四、北京鴨胸肉熱收縮後殺菌處理過程----------------------- 52
圖五、收縮真空包裝後北京鴨胸肉之外觀----------------------- 52
圖六、不同噴洒有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮真空包裝於0-4°C冷藏貯存期間鴨胸肉pH值之變化---------------------------------------- 66
圖七、不同噴洒有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮真空包裝於0-4°C冷藏貯存期間鴨胸肉L值之變化----------------------------------------- 69
圖八、不同噴洒有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮真空包裝於0-4°C冷藏貯存期間鴨胸肉a值之變化----------------------------------------- 70
圖九、不同噴洒有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮真空包裝於0-4°C冷藏貯存期間鴨胸肉b值之變化----------------------------------------- 71
圖十、不同噴洒有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮真空包裝於0-4°C冷藏貯存期間鴨胸肉VBN值之變化--------------------------------------- 74
圖十一、不同噴洒有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮真空包裝於0-4°C冷藏貯存期間鴨胸肉總生菌數之變化----------------------------------- 77
圖十二、不同噴洒有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮真空包裝於0-4°C冷藏貯存期間鴨胸肉大腸桿菌群數之變化------------------------------- 78
圖十三、不同噴洒有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮真空包裝於0-4°C冷藏貯存期間鴨胸肉TBARS值之變化----------------------------------- 81
圖十四、不同噴洒有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮真空包裝於0-4°C冷藏貯
存期間鴨胸肉變性肌紅蛋白含量之變化------------------------ 84
圖十五、不同噴洒有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮真空包裝於0-4°C冷藏貯存期間鴨胸肉保水力之變化------------------------------------ 86
圖十六、不同噴洒有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮真空包裝於0-4°C冷藏貯存期間鴨胸肉蒸煮失重之變化---------------------------------- 88
圖十七、不同噴洒有機酸處理結合後殺菌熱收縮真空包裝於0-4°C冷藏貯存期間鴨胸肉截切值之變化------------------------------------ 90

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