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研究生:布倫 奧特根蘇仁
研究生(外文):Burenjargal Otgosuren
論文名稱:叢枝菌根對蒙古扁穗冰草和外生菌根對蒙古歐洲赤松之效應
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on Mongolian Crested Wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L. Gaertn.) and Ectomycorrhizae on Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)
指導教授:李明仁李明仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Jen Lee
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:農業科學博士學位學程
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業技術學類
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:201
中文關鍵詞:蒙古扁穗冰草叢枝菌根壁無梗囊菌沾屑多樣孢囊菌耐凍性生長抗旱性脯胺酸葉綠素氣體交換葉綠素螢光Phialocephala fortinii歐洲赤松哈替氏網菌毯耐凍性生長抗旱性脯胺酸葉綠素氣體交換葉綠素螢光
外文關鍵詞:Agropyron cristatumArbuscular mycorrhizaeDiversispora spurcumfreezing tolerancegrowthdrought resistanceprolinechlorophyllgas exchangechlorophyll fluorescencePhialocephala fortiniiPinus sylvestrisHartig nethyphaemantlefreezing tolerancegrowthdrought resistanceprolinechlorophyllgas exchangechlorophyll fluorescence
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第一部分
摘要
蒙古扁穗冰草(Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn., crested wheatgrass)為蒙古草原的固有草種。本研究以濕篩傾倒法和蔗糖密度梯度離心技術分離蒙古扁穗冰草根圈土壤的叢枝菌根菌孢子,並鑑定為光壁無梗囊菌(Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe)和沾屑多樣孢囊菌(Diversispora spurcum C. Walker &; Schuessler)。叢枝菌根再合成的結果顯示,光壁無梗囊菌和沾屑多樣孢囊菌能與蒙古扁穗冰草苗形成叢枝菌根,並增進其生長與生物量。接種光壁無梗囊菌和沾屑多樣孢囊菌亦顯著增加蒙古扁穗冰草根、莖、葉的氮與礦物質(磷、鉀、鈣、鎂、鈉)含量。接種光壁無梗囊菌和沾屑多樣孢囊菌之蒙古扁穗冰草之葉綠素(a, b及a+b)含量、氣體交換(Pn, gs及E)、及葉綠素螢光(Fv/Fo及Fv/Fm)均顯著高於未接種者。低溫和水分不足增進脯胺酸之含量,特別是接種叢枝菌根菌之蒙古扁穗冰草苗葉部之脯胺酸含量顯著高於未接種者。接種與未接種之蒙古扁穗冰草苗經冷馴化後,再分別以凍結溫度 -8、-11、14、15、16及-17°C進行耐凍試驗,結果顯示,接種光壁無梗囊菌和沾屑多樣孢囊菌及未接種之蒙古扁穗冰草苗葉部之半致死溫度,分別為 -12.5、-14及-8°C,而其植株之半致死溫度,分別為 -11及-15.5°C。然而,7天凍結試驗結果顯示,接種與未接種之蒙古扁穗冰草植株之半致死溫度分別變成 -11及-8°C。在乾旱逆境處理後,未接種與接種之蒙古扁穗冰草之恢復率分別為60、100%及100%。這些結果證實,光壁無梗囊菌和沾屑多樣孢囊菌能與蒙古扁穗冰草有效地形成叢枝菌根,並增進其生長,可能經由增進其養分吸收、耐凍性及抗旱性。
第二部分
摘要
本研究探討蒙古歐洲赤松 (Pinus sylvestris) 之外生菌根,此為在蒙古第一次有關外生菌根菌與歐洲赤松結合之研究。本試驗自歐洲赤松林木採取外生菌根根尖樣本,並以立體顯微鏡、光學顯微鏡及電子顯微鏡技術觀察其外生菌根之形態。
本研究自歐洲赤松林木取樣外生菌根根尖分離出外生菌根菌,並以分子分析技術鑑定其為 Phialocephala fortinii 菌株。外生菌根再合成試驗結果顯示,P. fortinii 菌株接種至歐洲赤松苗木6個月後形成外生菌根。觀察發現哈替式網、外生菌絲、菌毯等外生菌根之構造,出現在接種之歐洲赤松苗木根部之皮層細胞中。
在正常、冷馴化及乾旱逆境條件下,接種 P. fortinii 菌株顯著增進歐洲赤松苗木之生長、生物量、及根莖葉之氮與礦物質(磷、鉀、鈣、鎂、鈉)含量。接種 P. fortinii 菌株亦顯著增加歐洲赤松苗木之葉綠素含量、氣體交換、及葉綠素螢光。此外,在低溫及水分不足之條件下,接種 P. fortinii 之歐洲赤松苗木之脯胺酸含量顯著高於未接種者。
接種與未接種之歐洲赤松苗木經冷馴化,再隨之分別以凍結溫度-8、-11、-14、-15、-16及-17°C進行耐凍試驗。結果顯示,未接種與接種之歐洲赤松苗木針葉之半致死溫度(50%死亡之致死溫度)分別為 -12及-15°C;而未接種與接種之歐洲赤松苗木植株之半致死溫度分別為 -14及-18°C。
乾旱逆境處理後,接種 P. fortinii 之歐洲赤松苗木之恢復率顯著高於未接種者,而且接種與未接種之歐洲赤松苗木之恢復率分別為 90 及 55%。這些結果證實,所分離之外生菌根菌 P. fortinii 能與歐洲赤松苗木有效地形成外生菌根,並經由增進苗木之養分吸收、耐凍性及抗旱性,以促進苗木之生長。

PART I
Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae on Mongolian Crested Wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L. Gaertn.)
Abstract
Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (crested wheatgrass) is an endemic grass species, which dominates the Mongolian steppe. In this study, spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the rhizosphere soil of crested wheatgrass were isolated with wet-sieving/decanting methods and sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the associated species was identified as Acaulospora scrobiculata Trappe. and Diversispora spurcum C. Walker & Schuessler. Arbuscular-mycorrhizal resynthesis experiment showed that A. scrobiculata and D. spurcum formed arbuscular mycorrhizae with crested wheatgrass seedlings, and promoted their growth and biomass. A. scrobiculata and D. spurcum inoculation also significantly increased the nitrogen and mineral (P, K, Ca, Mg, and Na) contents in roots, stems and leaves of crested wheatgrass. The chlorophyll contents (a, b and a+b), gas exchanges (Pn, gs and E) and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fo and Fv/Fm) were significantly higher in A. scrobiculata and D. spurcum inoculated crested wheatgrasses under normal, cold temperature and drought stress. The contents of proline were increased by low temperature and water deficit, especially the proline content in leaves of AMF inoculated crested wheatgrasses were significantly higher than non-inoculated ones. The inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass seedlings were cold acclimated and subsequently subjected to freezing tolerance tests at -8, -11, -14, -15, -16 and -17°C, respectively. The leaf LT50 (lethal temperature for 50% mortality) of A. scrobiculata and D. spurcum inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass were -12.5, -14 and -8°C, respectively, while, the whole plant LT50 of non-inoculated and both inoculated crested wheatgrass were -11 and -15.5°C, respectively. However, 7 days after freezing test, the plant LT50 of inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrasses were changed to -11 and -8°C, respectively.
After drought stress, recovery of non-inoculated and both AMF inoculated crested wheatgrasses were 60, 100% and 100%, respectively. These results demonstrated that A. scrobiculata and D. spurcum could effectively form arbuscular mycorrhizae with crested wheatgrass and improve its growth, presumably through enhanced nutrition acquisition, freezing tolerance and drought resistance.
PART II
Effects of Ectomycorrhizae on Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)
Abstract
The ectomycorrhiza (ECM) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) was investigated in this study. In Mongolia, this is the first study about the ectomycorrhizal fungus associated with Scots pine. Ectomycorrhizal root tips were sampled from Scots pine and observed for the ECM morphology with stereomicroscopy, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
The strains of ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECMF) were isolated from ectomycorrhizal root tips of Scots pine and identified as Phialocephala fortinii by molecular analysis. Resynthesis experiment showed that P. fortinii formed ectomycorrhizae with Scots pine seedlings after 6 months. Hartig net, external hyphae and mantle structure of ectomycorrhizae were presented in the cortical cells of Scots pine seedlings roots.
P. fortinii inoculation significantly increased growth, biomass and mineral and nitrogen (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and N) contents in roots, stems and needles of Scots pine seedlings under normal, cold acclimation and drought stress conditions. P. fortinii inoculation also significantly increased the chlorophyll contents, gas exchanges and chlorophyll fluorescence of Scots pine seedlings. Furthermore, the proline content of inoculated Scots pine seedlings was significantly higher than non-inoculated ones at low temperature and water deficit conditions.
The inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings were cold acclimated and subsequently subjected to freezing tolerance tests at -12, -14, -16, -18 and -20°C, respectively. The needle LT50 (lethal temperature for 50% mortality) of the non-inoculated and inoculated Scots pine seedlings were -12 and -15°C, respectively, while, the whole plant LT50 of non-inoculated and inoculated Scots pine seedlings were -14 and -18°C, respectively.
After drought stress, recovery of inoculated Scots pine seedlings was significantly higher than non-inoculated ones. Recovery of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings were 90 and 55%, respectively. These results demonstrated that the isolated ectomycorrhizal fungus P. fortinii could effectively form ectomycorrhizae with Scots pine seedlings and improve its growth, presumably through enhanced nutrition acquisition, proline content, freezing tolerance and drought resistace.

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements I
Part I. Abstract in English II
Part I. Abstract in Chinese IV
Part II. Abstract in English VI
Part II. Abstract in Chinese VIII
List of Figures XV
List of Tables XIX
Abbreviations XXV
Part I
Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on Mongolian crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L. Gaertn.)
Chapter 1. Literature review
1. 1. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (Crested wheatgrass) 1
1. 2. Mongolian grassland 3
1. 3. Mycorrhizae 4
1. 4. Arbuscular mycorrhizae 6
1. 5. Study on effects of low temperature and AMF 8
1. 6. Study on effects of drought stress and AMF 9
1. 7. Research aims 9
Chapter 2. Materials and Methods
2. 1. Sample collection and soil analysis 11
2. 2. Seedling culture 12
2. 3. Observation of mycorrhizae 13
2. 4. Isolation, identification and propagation of AMF 14
2. 5. Mycorrhizal resynthesis 14
2. 6. Morphology, colonization and ultrastructure of AM 14
2. 7. Measurement of growth and physiological characteristic 15
2. 8. Cold acclimation test of crested wheatgrass 18
2. 9. Assessment of freezing tolerance of crested wheatgrass 18
2. 10. Assessment of drought resistance of crested wheatgrass 19
2. 11. Statistical analysis 20
Chapter 3. Results
3. 1. Soil chemical properties of the crested wheatgrass in grassland at Bogd
Mountain in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar city 21
3. 2. Morphology and ultrastructure of natural mycorrhizal association of
crested wheatgrass in Mongolia 22
3. 3. Morphology and identification of isolated AMF of Mongolian
crested wheatgrass 23
3. 4. Resynthesis of Acaulospora scrobiculata and Diversispora spurcum 26
3. 5. Cold acclimation of crested wheatgrass 30
3. 6. Freezing tolerance of crested wheatgrass 46
3. 7. Drought resistance of crested wheatgrass 54
Chapter 4. Discussion
4. 1. Soil chemical properties of the crested wheatgrass in grassland at Bogd
Mountain in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar city 71
4. 2. Morphology and identification of natural AMF association of crested
wheatgrass from Mongolia 71
4. 3. Mycorrhizal resynthesis of isolated A. scrobiculata and D. spurcum with
crested wheatgrass 71
4. 4. Cold acclimation of crested wheatgrass 72
4. 5. Freezing tolerance of crested wheatgrass 76
4. 6. Drought resistance of crested wheatgrass 76
Chapter 5. Conclution 83
Chapter 6. References 85
Part II
Effects of ectomycorrhizae on Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)
Chapter 1. Literature review
1. 1. Pinus sylvestris species 102
1. 2. Mongolian forest 103
1. 3. Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) 104
1. 4. Phialocephala fortinii fungi 110
1. 5. Study on effects of low temperature and ECM 114
1. 6. Study on effects of drought stress and ECM 115
1. 7. Research aims 116
Chapter 2. Materials and Methods
2. 1. Sample collection and soil analysis 117
2. 2. Seedling culture 118
2. 3. Observation of mycorrhizae 119
2. 4. Isolation, identification and propagation of ECM 120
2. 5. Mycorrhizal resynthesis 122
2. 6. Morphology, colonization and ultrastructure of mycorrhizae 122
2. 7. Measurement of growth and physiological characteristic 123
2. 8. Cold acclimation test of pine seedlings 125
2. 9. Assessment of freezing tolerance of pine seedlings 125
2. 10. Assessment of drought resistance of pine seedlings 126
2. 11. Statistical analysis 127
Chapter 3. Results
3. 1. Chemical property of soil in site of Scots pine in Mongolia 128
3. 2. Morphology and ultrastructure of natural mycorrhizal association of Scots
pine in Mongolia 129
3. 3. Morphology and identification of isolated ectomycorrhizal fungus of
Mongolian Scots pine 135
3. 4. Resynthesis of ECMF P2 strain 140
3. 5. Cold acclimation of Scots pine seedlings 146
3. 6. Freezing tolerance of Scots pine seedlings 157
3. 7. Drought resistance of Scots pine seedlings 159
Chapter 4. Discussion
4. 1. Chemical property of soil in site of Scots pine in Mongolia 169
4. 2. Morphology of natural ECM association of Scots pine 169
4. 3. Isolation and identification of ECMF from Mongolian Scots pine 170
4. 4. Resynthesis of Phialocephala fortinii in Scots pine seedlings 171
4. 5. Cold acclimation of Scots pine seedlings 171
4. 6. Freezing tolerance of Scots pine seedlings 174
4. 7. Drought resistance of Scots pine seedlings 175
Chapter 5. Conclution 178
Chapter 6. References 179
Chapter 7. Appendixes 197
Chapter 8. Publications and symposium 201



List of Figures

Fig. 1. Mongolian grassland in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar city 2
Fig. 2. Morphology of crested wheatgrass 2
Fig. 3. Morphology of typical mycorrhizae 5
Fig. 4. Principal components of AMF associations. 7
Fig. 5. Arbuscular mycorrhizae of crested wheatgrass 22
Fig. 6. Extracted spores of Acaulospora scrobiculata and Diversispora spurcum. 24
Fig. 7. Morphology of spores of Diversispora spurcum. 25
Fig. 8. Morphology of spores of Acaulospora scrobiculata 25
Fig. 9. Morphology of root of crested wheatgrass inoculated with Acaulospora
scrobiculata 27
Fig. 10. Morphology of root of crested wheatgrass inoculated with Diversispora
spurcum 28
Fig. 11. Morphology of root of non-inoculated crested wheatgrass seedling 29
Fig. 12. High growth of A. cristatum seedlings inoculated with Acaulospora scrobiculata
(As) and Diversispora spurcum (Ds) and non-inoculated ones (C) 32
Fig. 13. Root growth of A. cristatum seedlings inoculated with Acaulospora scrobiculata
(As) and Diversispora spurcum (Ds) and non-inoculated ones (C) 32
Fig. 14. Cross sections of leaves of crested wheatgrass inoculated with Acaulospora
scrobiculata 35
Fig. 15. Cross sections of leaves of crested wheatgrass inoculated with Diversispora
spurcum 36
Fig. 16. Cross sections of leaves of non-inoculated crested wheatgrass 37
Fig. 17. Leaf and plant mortality as a function of freezing temperature 49
Fig. 18. Freezing injury of leaves of A. cristatum after 2 hours of freezing 49
Fig. 19. Cross sections of leaves of crested wheatgrass after 2 hours of freezing at -80C. 50
Fig. 20. Cross sections of leaves of crested wheatgrass after 2 hours of freezing at -110C 50
Fig. 21. Cross sections of leaves of crested wheatgrass after 2 hours of freezing at -140C 51
Fig. 22. Leaf morphology of crested wheatgrass under normal and freezing stress
conditions 52
Fig. 23. Freezing injury of leaves of crested wheat grass after seven days of freezing 53
Fig. 24. High growth of crested wheatgrass seedlings inoculated with A. scrobiculata
(As) and D. spurcum (Ds) and non-inoculated ones (C) 57
Fig. 25. Root growth of crested wheatgrass seedlings inoculated with A. scrobiculata
(As), D. spurcum (Ds) and non-inoculated ones (C) 57
Fig. 26. Cross section of leaves of crested wheatgrass under normal condition 60
Fig. 27. Cross section of leaves of crested wheatgrass after drought stress 60
Fig. 28. Stomata densities of crested wheat grass under normal condition 61
Fig. 29. Stomatal densities of crested wheatgrass after drought stress 61
Fig. 30. Stomata morphology of crested wheatgrass under normal condition 62
Fig. 31. Stomatal morphology of crested wheatgrass after drought stress 62
Fig. 32. Study area of Scots pine forest at Nukht in the vicinity of Ulaanbaatar city 103
Fig. 33. Section diagram of an ECM association including fungal and plant partners, demonstrating the key distinguishing features that characterize ECM. 106
Fig. 34. Morphology of ectomycorrhizal root 108
Fig. 35. Tip shapes of ectomycorrhizal root 108
Fig. 36. Mantle types as seen from mantle scrapings 109
Fig. 37. Hartig net types in ectomycorrhizal root 110
Fig. 38. Colonizing behavior of Phialocephala fortinii in roots of 100-day-old Betula
platyphylla var. japonica seedlings 113
Fig. 39. Morphology of mycorrhizae of Pinus sylvestris 130
Fig. 40. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of ectomycorrhizal roots of Scots
pine 131
Fig. 41. Ultrastructure of ectomycorrhizal roots of Scots pine 132
Fig. 42. Cross section of Scots pine. ECM root stained with Chlorazol black E solution
(CBE) 133
Fig. 43. Cross section of Pinus sylvestris ECM root stained with Safranin and Fast green 134
Fig. 44. Growth of ECMF P2 cultured on different media after 14 days 137
Fig. 45. Morphology of ECMF P2 strain 138
Fig. 46. Phylogenetic relationship constructed by Maximum-Parsimony (MP) method
based on ITS rDNA sequence of ECMF P2 strain. Dermea viburni rooted as
outgroup. 139
Fig. 47. Phylogenetic relationship constructed by Neighbor-Joining (NJ) method based
on ITS rDNA sequence of ECMF P2 strain. Dermea viburni rooted as outgroup 140
Fig. 48. Morphology of mycorrhizal system ramification of Scots pine seedling
inoculated with ECMF P2 strain 141
Fig. 49. Ultrastructure of ectomycorrhizal roots of Scots pine seedling 142
Fig. 50. Cross sections of Scots pine ECM root stained with Safranin and Fast green 143
Fig. 51. Root morphology of non-inoculated Scots pine seedling 144
Fig. 52. Cross sections of non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings root 145
Fig. 53. Morphology of Scots pine seedlings 148
Fig. 54. Needle and plant mortality as a function of freezing temperature 157
Fig. 55. Recovery of Scots pine seedlings inoculated with ECMF P2 strain and
non-inoculated ones for 10 days after freezing 158
Fig. 56. Morphology of Scots pine seedlings under drought stress 160
Fig. 57. Stomata morphology of Scots pine seedlings inoculated with ECMF P2 strain 162
Fig. 58. Stomata morphology of non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings 163

List of Tables
Table 1. Chemical property and pH of soil in site of crested wheatgrass in Mongolia 21
Table 2. Growth of AM inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass seedlings
under normal condition and cold acclimation 31
Table 3. Fresh biomass of AM inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass under
normal condition and cold acclimation 33
Table 4. Dry biomass of AM inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass under
normal condition and cold acclimation 33
Table 5. Total leaf area, leaf blade, leaf thickness and specific leaf area of AM
inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrasses under normal condition
and cold acclimation 34
Table 6. Chlorophyll contents of AM inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrasses
under normal condition, hardening and cold acclimation treatments 38
Table 7. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs)
and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of AM inoculated and non-inoculated
crested wheatgrass under normal condition, hardening and cold acclimation
treatments 40
Table 8. Primary fluorescence (Fo), maximal fluorescence (Fm), maximum
photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv) and
potential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fo) of crested wheatgrasses inoculated
with AM and non-inoculated controls 41
Table 9. Proline contents of AM inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrasses
under normal condition, hardening and cold acclimation treatments 42
Table 10. Mineral contents of root of inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass
seedlings under normal and stress conditions 44
Table 11. Mineral contents of stem of inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass
seedlings under normal and stress conditions 44
Table 12. Mineral contents of leaf of inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass
seedlings under normal and stress conditions 45
Table 13. Nitrogen contents of inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass
seedlings under normal and stress conditions 45
Table 14. Leaf mortality of crested wheatgrasses after freezing treatments 47
Table 15. Whole plant mortality of crested wheatgrasses inoculated with
A. scrobiculata, D. spurcum and non-inoculated ones under different
freezing temperature for 2 hrs 48
Table 16. Whole plant mortality of crested wheatgrasses inoculated with
A. scrobiculata, D. spurcum and non-inoculated ones under different
freezing temperature for seven days 48
Table 17. Growth of inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass seedlings
under normal and drought stress conditions 56
Table 18. Fresh biomass of AM inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass
under normal and drought stress conditions 58
Table 19. Dry biomass of AM inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass
under normal and drought stress conditions 58
Table 20. Total leaf area, leaf blade and specific leaf area of crested wheatgrasses
under normal and drought stress conditions 59
Table 21. Stomatal size and stomatal density on lower epidermis of crested wheatgrass
under normal condition and after drought stress 59
Table 22. Chlorophyll contents of crested wheatgrasses after one and two weeks of
drought stress treatments 63
Table 23. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs)
and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of crested wheatgrass inoculated with
D. spurcum, A. scrobiculata and non-inoculated control under drought stress
and normal conditions 65
Table 24. Primary fluorescence (Fo), maximal fluorescence (Fm), maximum
photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv)
and potential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fo) of crested wheatgrasses under
normal and drought stress conditions 66
Table 25. Proline contents of AM inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrasses
under normal and drought stress conditions 67
Table 26. Mineral contents of root of inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass
seedlings under normal and drought stress conditions 69
Table 27. Mineral contents of stem of inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass
seedlings under normal and drought stress conditions 69
Table 28. Mineral contents of leaf of inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass
seedlings under normal and drought stress conditions 70
Table 29. Nitrogen contents of inoculated and non-inoculated crested wheatgrass
seedlings under normal and drought stress conditions 70
Table 30. Chemical property and pH of soil in site of Scots pine in Mongolia 128
Table 31. ANOVA of growth rate of ECMF P2 strain on different media and
temperatures after 3 weeks 135
Table 32. Growth rates of the ECMF P2 strain at different media and temperatures
after 3 weeks of culture 136
Table 33. Growth of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings after 1.5
year of cultivation 147
Table 34. Fresh biomass of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings after
1.5 year of cultivation 147
Table 35. Dry biomass of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings after
1.5 year of cultivation 148
Table 36. Chlorophyll contents of Scots pine seedlings under normal and cold
conditions 150
Table 37. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance
(gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of Scots pine seedlings
inoculated with ECMF P2 strain and non-inoculated control at three
temperature treatments 151
Table 38. Primary fluorescence (Fo), maximal fluorescence (Fm), maximum
photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv)
and potential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fo) of Scots pine seedlings
inoculated with ECMF P2 strain and non-inoculated control 152
Table 39. Proline contents of Scots pine seedlings under normal condition,
hardening and cold acclimation treatments 153
Table 40. Mineral contents of root of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine
seedlings after 1.5 year of cultivation 154
Table 41. Mineral contents of stem of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine
seedlings after 1.5 year of cultivation 155
Table 42. Mineral contents of needle of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine
seedlings after 1.5 year of cultivation 155
Table 43. Nitrogen contents of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings
seedlings after 1.5 year of cultivation 156
Table 44. Growth of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings under
normal and drought stress conditions 160
Table 45. Fresh biomass of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings under
normal and drought stress conditions 161
Table 46. Dry biomass of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings under
normal and drought stress conditions 161
Table 47. Chlorophyll contents of Scots pine seedlings under normal and drought
stress conditions 164
Table 48. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance
(gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of Scots pine seedlings
inoculated with ECMF P2 and non-inoculated control under normal and
drought stress conditions 165
Table 49. Proline contents of Scots pine seedlings under normal and drought
stress conditions 166
Table 50. Mineral contents of root of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine
seedlings under normal and drought stress conditions 167
Table 51. Mineral contents of stem of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine
seedlings under normal and drought stress conditions 167
Table 52. Mineral contents of needle of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine
seedlings under normal and drought stress conditions 168
Table 53. Nitrogen contents of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings
under normal and drought stress conditions 168

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