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研究生:孫于琁
研究生(外文):Yu-Hsuan Sune
論文名稱:藍帶荷包魚(Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis)的仔稚魚發育、微細構造及首次攝餌之研究
論文名稱(外文):Larval development, microstructures and first feeding of the bluestriped angelfish, Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844)
指導教授:呂明毅呂明毅引用關係孟培傑孟培傑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Yih LeuPei-Jei Meng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:海洋生物多樣性及演化研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:首次攝餌光合菌微細構造仔稚魚發育藍帶荷包魚
外文關鍵詞:first feedingphotosynthetic bacteriamicrostructureslarval developmentChaetodontoplus septentrionalis
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本研究以解剖顯微鏡完整記錄藍帶荷包魚(Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis)仔魚的形態發育,並首次以電子顯微鏡觀察魚卵及仔魚的微細構造。剛孵化的仔魚,體全長(total length, TL)為2.11±0.06 mm,肌節上平均分佈黑色色素細胞,單一油球後位並具有一很大的卵黃囊。孵化後第3天(3 days post hatch, 3DPH)時(2.80±0.10 mm TL),油球及卵黃囊消耗殆盡,口部已形成。12 DPH時(4.34±0.31 mm TL),脊索末端開始上屈。至52 DPH時,鰭條達到成魚定數。在電子顯微鏡下,可觀察到受精卵表面之壁孔均勻散布且大小一致,密度約為72 /100 μm2。卵門為圓柱型,孔徑約為6.3μm,三角形的環形脊狀物集中在卵門內。7 DPH時,體表開始出現神經丘構造。至19 DPH時,可見全身佈滿刺棘。受精卵分別放置16、19、22、25、28、31、34及37℃下孵化,探討其孵化率及3 DPH仔魚活存率。此外,將受精卵放置0、6、10、14、18、22、26、28、30、32、34、36、38及40 ppt下孵化,探討對孵化率的影響。實驗結果顯示,在22、25、28、31℃有最高的孵化率(93.33 %),顯著高於其他處理組(p<0.05);在25 ℃下孵化後第3天有最高的活存率(78.23 ± 7.26 %),顯著高於其他處理組(p<0.05)。鹽度實驗則是在34 ppt有最高的孵化率,顯著高於其他處理組(p<0.05)。仔魚分別投餵游仆蟲(Euplotes sp.)、輪蟲(Branchionus rotundiformis)和橈足類(copepods)混合組,及上述三種餌料的混合組,以探討不同餌料組合對活存率的影響。此外,在水體中分別添加擬球藻(Nannochloropsis oculata)、光合菌(photosynthetic bacteria),探討對水質及活存率的影響。結果顯示,投餵橈足類、輪蟲及游仆蟲混合餌料組比其它處理組有較高的活存率,顯著高投餵游仆蟲組處理組(p<0.05)。添加擬球藻組的溶氧較添加光合菌及對照組高,pH也較高;氨濃度在添加光合菌處理組最低且穩定;添加擬球藻則有較高的活存率,顯著高於海水處理組(p<0.05)。
Larval development of Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis was described and illustrated using dissecting microscope, and the surface microstructures of eggs and larvae were also observed by scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Newly hatched larvae were 2.11± 0.06 mm in total length (TL), with melanophores evenly distributed on myomeres, and an oil globule in the ventroposterior area of the yolk sac. Three days post hatch (DPH) (2.80±0.10 mm TL), with the oil globule and yolk being almost absorbed, and the mouth was developed. Twelve DPH (4.34±0.31 mm TL), with melanophores covered the whole body, the notochord started to flex. Fifty-two DPH, all fins became the adults complement of rays and spines. Under scanning electron microscope, the pores on the egg surface were uniform in size and were protrudent, with a density about 72/100 μm2. The micropyle was cylinder shape, about 6.3μm in diameter. There were ridge substances with a sharp cicular triangel inside the micropyle. Seven DPH, a few neuromasts were observed on the body surface. Nineteen DPH, the skin were covered with spines. The effect of temperature (16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34 and 37℃) on hatching rate and 3DPH survival rates was compared. And the effect of salinity (0, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 ppt) on hatching rate was also compared. Results indicate significantly (p<0.05) higher hatching rates (93.33 %) in temperatures ranging from 22 to 31℃, and showed the significantly (p<0.05) higher survival rate (78.23 ± 7.26 %) in 25℃ at 3DPH. In the salinity trail, egg showed the significantly (p<0.05) higher hatching rate (100 %) at 34 ppt. C. septentrionalis larvae were fed either Euplotes sp., a mixed diet of rotifer (Branchionus rotundiformis) and copepods, or a combination of the three to determine the effect of live feed on the survival rate. Further, Nannochloropsis oculata and photosynthetic bacteria were added to the larval tank to determine the effect on survival rate and water quality. The results indicate the significantly (p<0.05) higher survival rate in larvae was fed a combination of diet (copepod, rotifer and Euplotes sp.) than fed Euplotes sp.. The dissolved oxygen and pH were higher in Nannochloropsis oculata treatment than in photosynthetic bacteria treatment and sea water (as control). Total ammonium-N was lower and more stable in photosynthetic bacteria treatment. Larvae in N. oculata treatment had the best survival rate, significantly (p<0.05) higher then the sea water.
摘要
Abstract
第一章 前言
1.1 緒言…………………………………………………………………………1
1.2文獻回顧……………………………………………………………………4
1.2.1藍帶荷包魚(Chaetodontoplus septentrionalis)………………………4
1.2.2 仔稚魚的研究…………………………………………………………6
1.2.3 海水觀賞魚市場………………………………………………………7
1.2.4 餌料生物(live food organisms)……………………………………8
1.2.5養殖環境管理………………………………………………………10
1.2.6光合菌(photosynthetic bacteria)……………………………………11
1.2.7 海洋微細藻類(marine microalgae)…………………………………13
1.2.8 溫度和鹽度的影響…………………………………………………14
1.2.9 掃描式電子顯微鏡(scanning electron microscope, SEM)…………15
1.3 研究目的……………………………………………………………………17
第二章 材料與方法
2.1 藍帶荷包魚仔稚魚形態發育的光學顯微鏡觀察…………………………19
2.1.1 實驗物種……………………………………………………………19
2.1.2餌料生物的培養……………………………………………………19
2.1.3仔稚魚的飼育…………………………………………………20
2.1.4仔稚魚的發育觀察…………………………………………………20
2.2 藍帶荷包魚卵和仔稚魚的掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察………………………22
2.2.1 固定…………………………………………………………………22
2.2.2 脫水…………………………………………………………………22
2.2.3 臨界乾燥……………………………………………………………23
2.2.4 離子覆膜……………………………………………………………23
2.2.5 掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察……………………………………………23
2.3 不同溫度及鹽度對藍帶荷包魚孵化及活存率的影響……………………23
2.3.1 不同溫度對藍帶荷包魚孵化及活存的影響………………………23
2.3.2 不同鹽度對藍帶荷包魚孵化率的影響……………………………25
2.4 不同餌料組合對藍帶荷包魚活存的影響…………………………………25
2.4.1 餌料投餵……………………………………………………………25
2.4.2 水質檢測……………………………………………………………25
2.5 添加微細藻類和光合菌對藍帶荷包魚活存及水質的影響………………30
2.5.1 水體添加……………………………………………………………31
2.6 統計分析…………………………………………………………………31
第三章 結果
3.1 藍帶荷包魚仔稚魚形態發育、成長及行為觀察…………………………33
3.1.1 仔稚魚發育的光學顯微鏡觀察……………………………………33
3.1.2 卵黃囊及油球的消耗………………………………………………36
3.1.3 仔稚魚的成長………………………………………………………36
3.1.4 口徑的發育…………………………………………………………37
3.1.5 仔稚魚的行為觀察…………………………………………………37
3.2 藍帶荷包魚的魚卵和仔稚魚的掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察…………………38
3.2.1 魚卵的微細構造……………………………………………………38
3.2.2 仔魚的微細構造……………………………………………………38
3.3 不同溫度和鹽度對藍帶荷包魚孵化及活存率的影響……………………40
3.3.1 不同溫度對藍帶荷包魚受精卵及仔魚的影響……………………40
3.3.2 不同鹽度對藍帶荷包魚孵化率的影響……………………………43
3.4 不同餌料組合對藍帶荷包魚活存的影響…………………………………43
3.5 添加微細藻類和光合菌對藍帶荷包魚活存及水質的影響………………44
第四章 討論
4.1 仔稚魚的發育………………………………………………………………47
4.1.1 卵黃囊及油球的消耗………………………………………………47
4.1.2 仔稚魚的攝食………………………………………………………47
4.1.3 仔稚魚的成長………………………………………………………48
4.1.4 仔稚魚的行為觀察…………………………………………………49
4.1.5 蓋刺魚科的比較……………………………………………………50
4.1.6 荷包魚屬間的比較…………………………………………………51
4.2 魚卵的微細構造……………………………………………………………52
4.3 仔魚的微細構造……………………………………………………………52
4.3.1 神經丘………………………………………………………………52
4.3.2 鼻孔…………………………………………………………………53
4.3.3 刺棘…………………………………………………………………53
4.3.4 鱗片…………………………………………………………………54
4.4 溫度對受精卵及仔魚的影響………………………………………………54
4.4.1 孵化率………………………………………………………………54
4.4.2 百分之五十的孵化時間及總孵化時間……………………………54
4.4.3剛孵化體長、卵黃囊體積及油球徑…………………………………55
4.4.4 活存率………………………………………………………………56
4.5 鹽度對受精卵孵化率的影響………………………………………………56
4.6 不同餌料生物對仔魚活存率的影響………………………………………56
4.7 微細藻和光合菌的添加對仔魚活存率及飼育水質的影響………………57
4.7.1 微細藻添加…………………………………………………………57
4.7.2 光合菌添加…………………………………………………………58
第五章 結論…………………………………………………………………………61
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………63
表……………………………………………………………………………………85
圖………………………………………………………………………………93
附錄……………………………………………………………………………115

【表目錄】
表1. 藍帶荷包魚在不同水溫下的孵化結果………………………………………85
表2. 藍帶荷包魚在不同水溫下的孵化時間及孵化率……………………………86
表3. 藍帶荷包魚在不同鹽度下的孵化率…………………………………………87
表4. 藍帶荷包魚在不同餌料組合實驗的水質參數………………………………88
表5. 藍帶荷包魚在不同餌料組合實驗的營養鹽濃度……………………………88
表6. 藍帶荷包魚在不同水體添加實驗的水質參…………………………………89
表7. 藍帶荷包魚在不同餌料組合實驗的營養鹽濃度……………………………89
表8. 蓋刺魚科仔稚魚的綜合比較…………………………………………………90
表9. 水質分析項目一覽表…………………………………………………………91

【圖目錄】
圖1. 集卵器及收集網………………………………………………………………93
圖2. 藍帶荷包魚餌料投餵順序……………………………………………………93
圖3. 藍帶荷包魚的仔稚魚連續發育………………………………………………94
圖4. 藍帶荷包魚的卵黃囊消耗情形………………………………………………97
圖5. 藍帶荷包魚的油球消耗情形…………………………………………………97
圖6. 藍帶荷包魚仔稚魚成長至86天的情形……………………………………98
圖7. 藍帶荷包魚的口徑成長情形…………………………………………………98
圖8. 藍帶荷包魚受精卵的表面微細構造…………………………………………99
圖9. 藍帶荷包魚剛孵化仔魚的體表微細構造…………………………………100
圖10. 孵化後第一天的藍帶荷包魚體表微細構造………………………………100
圖11. 孵化後第二天的藍帶荷包魚體表微細構造………………………………101
圖12. 孵化後第四天的藍帶荷包魚體表微細構造………………………………101
圖13. 孵化後第六天的藍帶荷包魚體表微細構造………………………………102
圖14. 孵化後第八天的藍帶荷包魚體表微細構造………………………………102
圖15. 孵化後第十二天的藍帶荷包魚體表微細構造……………………………103
圖15. 孵化後第十二天的藍帶荷包魚體表微細構造(續)………………………104
圖16. 孵化後第十五天的藍帶荷包魚體表微細構造……………………………104
圖17. 孵化後第十九天的藍帶荷包魚體表微細構造……………………………105
圖18. 不同溫度對藍帶荷包魚卵孵化率的影響…………………………………106
圖19 不同溫度對藍帶荷包魚50 %孵化時間的影響……………………………107
圖20. 不同溫度對藍帶荷包魚總孵化時間的影響………………………………108
圖21. 不同溫度下藍帶荷包魚在0 DPH之油球徑長、卵黃囊體積及體全長差異…………………………………………………………………………109
圖22. 不同溫度下藍帶荷包魚仔魚的卵黃囊體積、油球徑長及體全長隨時間之變化和開口時間………………………………………………………………110
圖23. 藍帶荷包魚孵化後第3天的活存率及開口時間…………………………111
圖24. 不同鹽度對藍帶荷包魚卵孵化的影響……………………………………112
圖25. 不同餌料添加對藍帶荷包魚活存率的影響………………………………113
圖26. 不同水體添加對藍帶荷包魚活存率的影響………………………………114
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