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研究生:靳彥鋐
研究生(外文):Chin Yen-Hung
論文名稱:國民中小學語文型與非語文型學習障礙學生在魏氏兒童智力量表四版(WISC-IV)表現特徵之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on the Characteristics of WISC-IV for Elementary and Junior High School Students with Verbal Learning Disabilities and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities
指導教授:孟瑛如孟瑛如引用關係
指導教授(外文):Meng Ying-Ru
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立新竹教育大學
系所名稱:特殊教育學系碩士班
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:191
中文關鍵詞:語文型學習障礙非語文型學習障礙魏氏兒童智力量表
外文關鍵詞:Verbal learning disabilitiesNonverbal learning disabilitiesWISC-IV
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本研究旨在探討VLD和NLD學生在WISC-IV測驗結果表現特徵之差異情形、不同性別與就學階段之VLD和NLD學生在WISC-IV測驗結果表現特徵之差異情形以及不同性別與就學階段之VLD和NLD學生在學業成就與學習行為表現之差異情形。本研究以桃園縣、新竹市、新竹縣、苗栗縣四縣市國民中小學98~99學年度經「特殊教育學生鑑定及就學輔導會」鑑定,確定符合學習障礙鑑定原則及本研究所界定之VLD和NLD標準之學生為研究對象。將以所得之有效樣本進行描述性統計、獨立樣本t檢定、卡方檢定χ2、二因子變異數分析等統計方法之分析。本研究發現之主要結論如下:
一、LD學生在語文題材的分測驗中,以「數.字序列」的得分
為最高,「算術」的得分為最低。在作業題材部份,以「圖
畫補充」的得分為最高,「符號替代」的得分為最低;符合
「ACVS」與「部分ACVS」組型的比例分別為0.22%與3.78%;
FSIQ之表現顯著低於一般學生一個標準差左右。VCI、WMI
、PRI及PSI與一般學生相比較均低將近一個標準差,而PSI
為四項組合分數中之最低分;DSB的得分高於DSF的得分,
符合者佔整體之49.1%。
二、VLD學生顯著高於NLD學生之分測驗分別為「圖形設計」、
「圖畫概念」、「矩陣推理」、「數.字序列」、「符號替代」以
及「符號尋找」;NLD學生顯著高於VLD學生之分測驗則為
「類同」、「詞彙」、「理解」以及「常識」;VLD學生符合「ACVS」
組型者佔0.32%,符合「部份ACVS」組型者佔4.11%,而
NLD學生符合「部份ACVS」組型者佔2.98%;VLD和NLD
學生其FSIQ之表現均顯著低於一般學生一個標準差左右,
但彼此無顯著差異。VLD學生在PRI、WMI與PSI顯著高於
NLD學生,NLD學生在VCI顯著高於VLD學生。另VLD
學生其PRI顯著高於VCI,NLD學生其VCI顯著高於PRI。
VLD學生其DSF-DSB差異多為DSB高於DSF,符合者佔
53.02%;NLD學生其DSF-DSB差異多為DSF高於DSB,
符合者佔49.61%。
三、VLD和NLD組別中,男女的比例皆約為2:1。LD學生中
男性出現率高於女性之結果,並沒有因分亞型而有所差異。
四、無論是VLD或NLD學生,男女性仍皆符合VLD學生其作業
表現優於語文表現之特徵,NLD學生其語文表現優於作業表現之特徵。VLD學生其男性在較多數作業題材之分測驗表現優於女性,而兩類型LD學生在「圖畫補充」分測驗皆為男性顯著高於女性。相較於VLD學生其男女性在分測驗及歷程分數的部份差異,NLD學生之表現較不受性別因素之影響。
五、國小與國中階段之VLD或NLD學生,仍皆符合VLD學生其
作業表現優於語文表現之特徵,NLD學生其語文表現優於作
業表現之特徵。VLD學生部份語文能力並未隨年齡增長而
有所進步。但NLD學生隨著年齡的增長,不管在語文或是
作業題材的表現,以及FSIQ、PRI與WMI,都有顯著的進
步。
六、考量LD學生之背景變項時,WISC-IV中分測驗量表分數、
組合分數及歷程分數之表現皆未受「性別×組別」交互作用
之影響。
七、考量LD學生之背景變項時,受「就學階段×組別」交互作用
之影響時,不論就學階段為國小或國中,NLD學生其VCI
及「詞彙」、「理解」、「常識」分測驗均顯著高於VLD
學生。而就學階段為國小時,VLD學生在「圖畫補充」、「數.
字序列」、「算術」分測驗、FSIQ以及WMI顯著高於NLD
學生。
八、VLD學生在「中文年級認字量表」及「閱讀理解困難篩選測
驗」之通過率均顯著低於NLD學生。而同時考量性別與就
學階段背景變項時,VLD學生在「中文年級認字量表」之表
現,國小階段之女性通過的比率顯著高於男性。在「基礎數
學概念評量」部分,無論男女性之VLD,國小通過的比率均
顯著高於國中。而NLD學生則皆無顯著差異。
九、VLD和NLD學生在「國民中小學學習行為特徵檢核表」六
項分量表之表現皆未達顯著差異。而同時考量性別與就學階
段背景變項時,在「理解與表達」、「知動協調」、「情緒
表現」以及「全量表」部份,國小與國中階段之VLD女性
達很頻繁的比率皆顯著高於男性。另在「注意與記憶」、「理
解與表達」、「知動協調」、「情緒表現」以及「全量表」
部份,國小階段之NLD女性達很頻繁的比率皆顯著高於男
性。

本研究依據上述結論,提出對於教育與未來研究的建議,以供特殊教育教師與研究人員、學習障礙鑑定相關人員對於VLD和NLD學生有更深入的認識

The major purposes of the study were to investigate the different characteristics of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition(WISC-IV), academic achievements and learning behavior between students with Verbal learning disabilities(VLD) and Nonverbal learning disabilities(NLD). The subjects were elementary and junior high school students who came from Tao-Yuan county, Hsin-Chu city, Hsin-Chu county, and Miao-Li county that had been considered as learning disabilities(LD) by official processing and in keeping with the definitions of the study in year 2009 to 2011. Frequency distributions, t-test, qui-square and two-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data in the paper.
The major findings of this study are as follows:
1.LD students earned the highest scores in Letter-Number Sequencing subtest and the lowest scores in Arithmetic subtest within the verbal subtests. Besides, LD students earned the highest scores in Picture Completion subtest and the lowest scores in Coding subtest within the performance subtests. In the LD students, 0.22% were in keeping with “ACVS” pattern, and 3.78% were in keeping with “Partial ACVS” pattern. LD’s FSIQ was significantly lower than general students about one standard deviation in statistics. When comparing to general students, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were lower and close to one standard deviation, and PSI was the lowest scores of the four Composites. In the LD students, 49.1% were manifested the characteristic of DSB>DSF.
2.The scores of the VLD students in the subtests (including Block Design, Picture Concepts, Matrix Reasoning, Letter-Number Sequencing, Coding and Symbol Search) was significantly higher than NLD students in statistics. The scores of the NLD students in the subtests (including Similarities, Vocabulary, Comprehension and Information) was significantly higher than VLD students in statistics. 0.32% were in keeping with “ACVS” pattern, and 4.11% were in keeping with “Partial ACVS” pattern for students with VLD. 2.98% were in keeping with “Partial ACVS” pattern for students with NLD. FSIQ of the VLD students and NLD students were both significantly lower than general students about one standard deviation in statistics. Besides, FSIQ of the VLD students and NLD students had no discrepancy to each other. The scores of the VLD students in the Composites (including PRI, WMI and PSI) was significantly higher than NLD students in statistics. The scores of the NLD students in VCI was significantly higher than VLD students in statistics. PRI was significantly higher than VCI in statistics for students with VLD. VCI was significantly higher than PRI in statistics for students with NLD. 53.02% manifested the characteristic of DSB>DSF for students with VLD, and 49.61% manifested the characteristic of DSF>DSB for students with NLD.
3.Both VLD students and NLD students manifested the result that the rate of gender was 2:1. The fact that female LD students are outnumbered by male LD students makes no difference with VLD or NLD.
4.Students with VLD performed better in performance subtests than in verbal subtests in spite of their gender. Students with NLD performed better in verbal subtests than in performance subtests makes no difference in considering with their gender, too. Male VLD students performed significantly higher than female VLD students in statistics in most of performance subtests. Both of the VLD and NLD students, male performed significantly higher than female in statistics in Picture Completion subtest. However, NLD students were less influenced by the factor of gender than VLD students.
5.Both VLD students and NLD students at Elementary and junior high school level conformed to the result that students with VLD performed better in performance subtests than in verbal subtests and students with NLD performed better in verbal subtests than in performance subtests. Part of the verbal ability of VLD students doesn’t improve along with the age. However, no matter in verbal, performance subtest, FSIQ, PRI or WMI NLD students made great progress along with the age.
6.Concerning with the background of the LD students, subtests, composites and process scores were not influenced by the reciprocal effect of gender and LD’s group.
7.Concerning with the background of the LD students, the scores of the NLD students in VCI, Vocabulary, Comprehension and Information was significantly higher than VLD students in statistics in spite of educational levels. The scores of the VLD students in Picture Completion, Letter-Number Sequencing, Arithmetic, FSIQ and WMI was significantly higher than NLD students in statistics in the elementary school level.
8.The passing rate of the VLD students in academic achievement tests (including word recognition and reading comprehension) was significantly less than NLD students in statistics. Concerning with the factors of gender and educational levels at the same time, the passing rate of the female VLD students was significantly higher than male VLD students in statistics in the test of word recognition in the elementary school level. No matter the male or female of VLD students, the passing rate of elementary school students was significantly higher than that of junior high school students in statistics. But there was no discrepancy between NLD students.
9.VLD and NLD students had no discrepancy between the six subtests in the Learning Characteristics Checklist. Concerning with the factors of gender and educational levels at the same time, the rate of female VLD students that came up to the frequency was significantly higher than male in statistics in the four subtests(including comprehension and expression, motor coordination, emotional performance, and full scale) in the elementary and junior high school levels. The rate of female NLD students that came up to the frequency was significantly higher than male in statistics in the five subtests(including attention and memory, comprehension and expression, motor coordination, emotional performance, and full scale) in the elementary school level.

The results of this study provide suggestions for educational and future studies that help the special education teachers and researchers to understand VLD and NLD students more.

目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的與待答問題 7
第三節 名詞釋義 9
第二章 文獻探討 13
第一節 VLD與NLD的定義與特徵 13
第二節 VLD與NLD之鑑定與分類標準 27
第三節 WISC-IV之應用與解釋 41
第四節 VLD與NLD於WISC表現特徵相關之研究 55
第三章 研究方法 69
第一節 研究架構 69
第二節 研究對象 70
第三節 研究工具 71
第四節 研究流程 73
第五節 資料處理與分析 74
第四章 研究結果與討論 77
第一節 樣本基本資料之描述性分析 77
第二節 VLD和NLD學生在WISC-IV測驗結果表現特徵分析 80
第三節 不同性別與就學階段之VLD和NLD學生在WISC-IV測驗結果表現特徵分析 93
第四節 不同性別與就學階段之VLD和NLD學生在學業成就及學習行為表現特徵之分析 136
第五節 研究結果討論 164
第五章 結論與建議 171
第一節 研究結論 171
第二節 研究建議 175
參考書目 178
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二、英文參考書目 183


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