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研究生:詹惟凱
研究生(外文):Wei-kai Jan
論文名稱:使用不同運算放大器調節聆聽音樂後對人體心率變異之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Heart Rate Variability After Listening to Music with Operational Amplifiers Modulation
指導教授:余哲仁余哲仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Zer-ren Yu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南華大學
系所名稱:自然醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:其他醫藥衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:頻率響應音樂療法音響響度運算放大器訊號處理心率變異頻寬延伸自律神經
外文關鍵詞:bandwidth extensionoperational amplifiersaudio bandwidthvolumeautonomic nervous systemheart rate variabilitymusic therapyfrequency responsespectrum intensity
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  本研究主要探討年輕健康受試者在聆聽不同運算放大器調節後的音樂,對於心率變異的影響。研究對象為某大學日間部學生共20 名,包含女性10 名,其平均年齡為21.4±1.5 歲;男性10 名,其平均年齡為22.0±1.4 歲。研究設計為受試者內設計;研究模組的設計包含一組控制組及一組實驗組,設有六組研究模組(Model OP-None、Model AD8022、Model AD8012、Model NE5532、Model TL082、Model OPA2134),研究測量使用心率變異指標:平均心跳間距(the time average of RR-intervals, RRI);正常竇性心搏間期之標準差(standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals, SDNN);平均心跳數(the time average of heart rate, HR);正常心跳間期差值平方和的均方根(the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of 心率變異的影響。研究對象為某大學日間部學生共20 名,包含女性10 名,其平均年齡為21.4±1.5 歲;男性10 名,其平均年齡為22.0±1.4 歲。研究設計為受試者內設計;研究模組的設計包含一組控制組及一組實驗組,設有六組研究模組(Model OP-None、Model AD8022、Model AD8012、Model NE5532、Model TL082、Model OPA2134),研究測量使用心率變異指標:平均心跳間距(the time average of RR-intervals, RRI);正常竇性心搏間期之標準差(standard deviation of all normal tonormal intervals, SDNN);平均心跳數(the time average of heart rate, HR);正常心跳間期差值平方和的均方根(the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, RMSSD);低頻功率(low frequency power,LF);高頻功率(high frequency power, HF);總功率(total power, TP)。
 
  當運算放大器對於原始音樂之低音、中音及高音音樂頻寬振幅分佈為平均增益或抑制時,運算放大器調節之實驗音樂對於人體心率變異之影響與未調節的原始音樂刺激效果相仿,如運算放大器AD8022、TL082 及OPA2134;當運算放大器對於原始音樂之低音(極低音部分至低音)、中音頻寬(上段中音)及高音頻寬(下段高音)的振幅產生抑制時,則會對於男性及女性的心率變異產生放鬆效果,如運算放大器AD8012;當運算放大器對於原始音樂之低音頻寬(極低音至低音)、中音頻寬(上段中音)及高音頻寬的振幅產生抑制時,則會對於男性及女性的心率變異產生刺激效果,如運算放大器NE5532。
 
  而聆聽10 分鐘節奏為150BPM 的未調節或經運算放大器調節後印度民族梵語音樂,都會使得心率變異的TP 值下降,產生放鬆效果。
 
  顯示藉由運算放大器調節音樂中特定頻寬來刺激人體聽覺系統後,會影響自律神經系統的平衡性;因此本研究可作為未來進一步探討調整音樂頻寬振幅刺激人體聽覺系統如何調整自律神經活動的基礎。
  The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of listening to the music with operational amplifiers(OP-Amps) on HRV activity in young healthy
individuals. This study was a within subject design and pretest-posttest experimental design trial carried out on 20 healthy undergraduate students including 10 female
subjects, mean age 21.4 ± 1.5 years; 10 male subjects, whose average age was 22.0 ± 1.4 years. Participants were allocated to all of six study models including (1) Model
OP-None, (2) Model AD8022, (3) Model AD8012, (4) Model NE5532, (5) Model TL082, and (6) Model OPA2134. Each study model included a control group and a stimuli group. Participants in the stimuli group were asked to listen to indian cultural music in sanskrit with or without OP-Amps for 10 minutes.
 
  The outcome measure involved HRV indices including the time average of RR-intervals, RRI; standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals, SDNN; the time average of heart rate, HR; the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, RMSSD; low frequency power, LF; high frequency power, HF; total power, TP. The values of HRV were used to quantify
modulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system.
 
  Listening to indian cultural music in sanskrit with OP-Amps included AD8022, TL082 and OPA2134 will have the same effects as the non-modulated indian cultural music in sanskrit. Listening to indian cultural music in sanskrit with AD8012 will have relax effects on HRV. Listening to indian cultural music in sanskrit with NE5532 will have stiluli effects on HRV.
 
  As the results, listening to indian cultural music in sanskrit with or without OP-Amps for 10 minutes will lower the total power of HRV and let the participants relax.
 
  Clearly, stimulating the human auditory system by modulating particular audio bandwidths would affect the balance of the autonomic nervous system. The findings
described in this study can be served as a reference for studies of music therapy in the future.
論文口試委員審定書......................................................................................................i
謝誌................................................................................................................................ii
中文摘要........................................................................................................................iii
Abstract ...........................................................................................................................v
目次...............................................................................................................................vii
表目次..........................................................................................................................xiii
圖目次..........................................................................................................................xiv
中英文縮寫全文對照表...............................................................................................xv
 
第一章研究背景...........................................................................................................1
 
第二章文獻回顧...........................................................................................................3
2.1 音樂與神經系統..............................................................................................3
2.1.1 音樂傳遞與人體聽覺系統...................................................................3
2.1.2 有意識的音樂認知及迴饋...................................................................3
2.1.3 無意識的音樂刺激與反射...................................................................4
2.2 音樂與生理作用..............................................................................................6
2.2.1 音樂與情緒調節的關係.......................................................................6
2.2.2 音樂頻率對生理的影響.......................................................................8
2.2.2.1 音調與響度................................................................................8
2.2.2.2 音樂頻寬.................................................................................. 11
2.2.3 音樂旋律對生理的影響.....................................................................12
2.2.4 音樂偏好對生理的影響.....................................................................13
2.3 心率變異........................................................................................................14
2.3.1 心率變異原理與發展.........................................................................14
2.3.2 心率變異量測與分析.........................................................................15
2.3.2.1 心率變異量測..........................................................................15
2.3.2.2 時域分析..................................................................................15
2.3.2.3 頻域分析..................................................................................16
2.3.3 影響心率變異的因素.........................................................................17
2.3.3.1 生理因素..................................................................................17
2.3.3.2 心理因素..................................................................................18
2.3.3.3 時間因素..................................................................................18
2.3.3.4 習慣因素..................................................................................18
2.4 音樂訊號處理................................................................................................19
2.4.1 音樂與頻寬延伸.................................................................................19
2.4.2 音樂訊號的過濾與均衡.....................................................................19
2.4.2.1 訊號過濾器..............................................................................19
2.4.2.2 訊號均衡器..............................................................................20
2.4.3 音樂與運算放大器.............................................................................20
2.4.3.1 放大器原理..............................................................................20
2.4.3.2 放大器的應用..........................................................................21
2.4.3.3 運算放大器..............................................................................21
2.5 研究目的........................................................................................................21
 
第三章研究方法.........................................................................................................22
3.1 實驗設計........................................................................................................24
3.1.1 控制組.................................................................................................24
3.1.2 實驗組.................................................................................................24
3.1.3 受試者內設計.....................................................................................24
3.1.4 研究模組.............................................................................................25
3.1.4.1 Model OP-None ........................................................................25
3.1.4.2 Model AD8022..........................................................................25
3.1.4.3 Model AD8012..........................................................................25
3.1.4.4 Model NE5532..........................................................................25
3.1.4.5 Model TL082 ............................................................................25
3.1.4.6 Model OPA2134........................................................................26
3.2 音樂訊號處理................................................................................................27
3.2.1 研究工具.............................................................................................27
3.2.1.1 音樂擴大器..............................................................................27
3.2.1.2 運算放大器..............................................................................27
3.2.1.3 實驗用音樂..............................................................................30
3.2.2 訊號錄製.............................................................................................30
3.2.3 頻譜繪製.............................................................................................30
3.2.4 頻寬計算.............................................................................................30
3.3 受試者招募....................................................................................................31
3.3.1 受試者招募選擇條件.........................................................................31
3.3.2 受試者招募排除條件.........................................................................31
3.3.3 受試者招募結果.................................................................................31
3.4 人體實驗........................................................................................................32
3.4.1 研究工具.............................................................................................32
3.4.2 受試者實驗場所.................................................................................32
3.4.3 受試者實驗流程.................................................................................33
3.4.4 心率變異數據量測.............................................................................35
3.4.5 心率變異數據擷取.............................................................................35
3.5 心率變異統計分析........................................................................................35
3.5.1 描述性統計.........................................................................................35
3.5.2 資料篩選.............................................................................................35
3.5.3 參數處理.............................................................................................36
3.5.4 成對樣本t 檢定..................................................................................36
3.5.5 獨立樣本t 檢定..................................................................................36
3.5.6 變異數多變量分析.............................................................................37
3.6 一般分析與綜合分析結果............................................................................37
 
第四章研究結果.........................................................................................................38
4.1 研究對象人數、年齡與性別分佈分析........................................................38
4.2 控制組及實驗組組內前後測之心率變異差異百分比與性別分佈............38
4.2.1 研究模組Model OP-None .................................................................38
4.2.1.1 時域與頻域分析......................................................................38
4.2.1.2 性別..........................................................................................38
4.2.2 研究模組Model AD8022...................................................................40
4.2.2.1 時域與頻域分析......................................................................40
4.2.2.2 性別..........................................................................................40
4.2.3 研究模組Model AD8012...................................................................42
4.2.3.1 時域與頻域分析......................................................................42
4.2.3.2 性別..........................................................................................42
4.2.4 研究模組Model NE5532...................................................................44
4.2.4.1 時域與頻域分析......................................................................44
4.2.4.2 性別..........................................................................................44
4.2.5 研究模組Model TL082 .....................................................................46
4.2.5.1 時域與頻域分析......................................................................46
4.2.5.2 性別..........................................................................................46
4.2.6 研究模組Model OPA2134.................................................................48
4.2.6.1 時域分析..................................................................................48
4.2.6.2 性別..........................................................................................48
4.3 研究模組音樂頻寬振幅分佈........................................................................50
 
第五章研究討論.........................................................................................................57
5.1 性別與心率變異相關性討論........................................................................57
5.2 運算放大器與心率變異相關性討論............................................................59
5.3 運算放大器與音訊頻寬振幅........................................................................61
5.4 音訊頻寬振幅與心率變異相關性討論........................................................63
 
第六章結論.................................................................................................................65
 
第七章研究建議.........................................................................................................66
 
參考文獻.......................................................................................................................67
 
附錄A 論文研撰計畫書.............................................................................................78
附錄B 受測者同意書.................................................................................................80
附錄C 受試者基本資料.............................................................................................81
附錄D YAHA 耳機擴大器電路板..............................................................................82
附錄E 運算放大器AD8022 規格.............................................................................83
附錄F 運算放大器AD8012 規格..............................................................................84
附錄G 運算放大器NE5532 規格.............................................................................85
附錄H 運算放大器TL082 規格................................................................................86
附錄I 運算放大器OPA2134 規格.............................................................................87
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