(3.235.139.152) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/08 18:33
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:陳鋒蒔
研究生(外文):Chen, Feng-Shih
論文名稱:淡小紋青斑蝶(Tirumala limniace limniace (Cramer))生物學之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Biology of Tirumala limniace limniace (Cramer)
指導教授:陳素瓊
指導教授(外文):Chen, Su-Chiung
口試委員:歐陽盛芝林亞立黃啟鐘
口試委員(外文):Ou, Yang-Sheng-ChihLin, Ya-LiHuang, Chi-Chung
口試日期:2011-06-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:園藝學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:淡小紋青斑蝶生物學形態食葉量溫度
外文關鍵詞:Tirumala limniace limniace (Cramer)biologymorphological descriptionleaf consumptiontemperature
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:319
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:34
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本試驗目的在探討淡小紋青斑蝶(Tirumala limniace limniace (Cramer))(鱗翅目:蛺蝶科)生物學基本資料,包括外部形態描述、生活史、食葉量及在不同溫度下對其生長發育之影響。本試驗於網室內採淡小紋青斑蝶當日產的卵,置於25 ± 1 ℃,80 ± 5 % RH,14L:10D的條件下,以蘿藦科(Asclepiadaceae) 的華他卡藤(Dregea volubilis (L. f.) Benth) 葉片,單隻飼養帅蟲至羽化為成蟲,每天觀察其形態變化及發育情形並記錄。結果顯示,淡小紋青斑蝶未成熟期為25~36天,其中卵期帄均3.74 ± 0.09天;帅蟲外觀上,有肉突,前後各一對;蟲體顏色鮮豔,1~5齡帅蟲的帄均發育日數分別為3.11 ± 0.09、2.30 ± 0.07、2.35 ± 0.07、3.20 ± 0.07及4.91 ± 0.04天。前蛹期約1天,蛹期帄均為10.35 ± 0.07天,合計約31天,蛹為垂蛹(Hanging pupa),翠綠色鑲有銀色金屬斑點,並有一圈明亮的金屬斑點,雌雄蝶在外觀上相似,但雄蝶後翅有口袋狀的性標可與雌蝶區別。帅蟲期食葉量,1齡帅蟲的葉片取食面積為0.54 ± 0.11 cm2,2~5齡帅蟲的葉片取食面積分別為1.48 ± 0.16、5.63 ± 0.55、27.74 ± 2.66及254.60 ± 8.60 cm2,其帅蟲期總共要消耗289.98 ± 8.48 cm2的華他卡藤葉片。在不同溫度下試驗,將卵分別置放於15、20、25、30 及35 ℃生長箱中飼養,孵出之帅蟲分別以華他卡藤葉片單隻飼育至羽化成蝶,調查在不同溫度下各蟲期之變化。結果顯示,以25 ℃存活率達90 %最高,而以15 ℃的存活率最低。各蟲期的發育日數隨著溫度升高而縮短,從卵至羽化為成蝶的帄均發育期以35 ℃最短,只需要21天,20 ℃最長需要51.45 ± 0.49天,為前者的2.45倍,但35 ℃羽化率只有25.75 ± 23.99 %,且翅膀多畸形。淡小紋青斑蝶發育臨界低溫,卵為7.16 ℃,1~5齡帅蟲分別為9.46、7.35、8.92、10.02及10.16 ℃,蛹期為11.40 ℃,卵至成蟲為8.00 ℃。各蟲期的有效積算溫,卵期為74.07日度,1至5齡帅蟲分別為50.25、47.39、46.30、53.19及81.30日度,蛹期為147.06日度,卵至成蟲總需526.32日度。帅蟲的帄均頭殼寬度超過3.08 mm的閾值即成為末齡帅蟲;試驗溫度會影響各蟲期的生長發育。由此得知,25 ℃為淡小紋青斑蝶較適合的飼育溫度,上述結果可做為大量飼養的基本資料。
The study was performed to collect the basic biological data of immature and adult stages of Tirumala limniace limniace (Cramer) ( Lepidoptera : Nymphalidae) to explore its morphology and leaf consumption of each larval instar and the life cycle. Fresh eggs of T. limniace limniace (Cramer) were collected from host plants in a net room. Fresh eggs collected were placed in a growth chamber under conditions of 25 ± 1 ℃, 80 ± 5 % RH, and with a photoperiod of 14 h of light and 10 h of darkness. Hatching larvae were individually reared with leaves of Dregea volubilis (L. f.) Benth (Asclepiadaceae) and observed the morphological changes along with the larval developmental stages. Results indicated that the immature stage of T. limniace limniace (Cramer) lasted 25-36 days, with an egg stage of 3.74 ± 0.09 days in average. Larvae were of brightly color, with two pairs of flesh extrusion, one pair at each ends of the worm body. The average developmental days of the larvae from the 1st to 5th larval stages in series were 3.11 ± 0.09, 2.30 ± 0.07, 2.35 ± 0.07, 3.20 ± 0.07, and 4.91 ± 0.04 days. The prepupa stage was about one day, the development of pupa was averaged to 10.35 ± 0.07 days. Pupa is of hanging pupa type, emerald, with silver spots and brightly round metal spots. Male and female look similar, but only male have a pocket mark on the wings. Leaf area consumed of the 1st instar larva was 0.54 ± 0.11 cm2,
and were 1.48 ± 0.16; 5.63 ± 0.55; 27.74 ± 2.66 and 254.60 ± 8.60 cm2 respectively of the following 2nd-5th instar phases, leaf consumption of D. volubilis (L. f.) during the whole larvae stage at 25 ℃ was 289.98 ± 8.48 cm2. Fresh eggs were placed in a growth chamber under conditions of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ℃, hatching larvae were individually reared with leaves of D. volubilis (L. f.) Benth for a serial observation of the development of the butterfly under different temperatures. Results indicated that the highest survival rate ( 90 %) occurred at 25 ℃. Subjects hatching and rearing at 15 ℃ showed lowest survival rate, no adults result at this temperature. Duration in days of life stages decreased as the temperature increased from
15 to 35 ℃. The average number of days of development from egg to adult at 35 ℃ was a shortest of only 21 days, while the longest was at 20 ℃ and of 51.45 ± 0.49 days which is 2.45 times longer than the former one, however, the emergence rate (25.75 ± 23.99 %) was the lowest at 35 ℃, and the adults developed under this temperature suffered high frequency of deforming wings. The development rates of different life stages and the rearing temperature was positively correlated with an linear relationship. The lower developmental threshold temperatures for the development of egg, 1st-5th instar larva, pupa, and the egg to adult stage were estimated to be 7.16, 9.46, 7.35, 8.92, 10.02, 10.16, 11.40, and 8.00 ℃, respectively.
The accumulative effective temperature of egg, 1st-5th instar larva, pupa, and the egg to adult were 74.07, 50.25, 47.39, 46.30, 53.19, 81.30, 147.06 and 526.32 degree-days, respectively. The threshold value of the average head capsule width for development into the last instar larva was 3.08 mm. Rearing temperature affects the period of the insect body, the maximum larval size occurred at 25 ℃ which indicates the best temperature condition for rearing the butterfly artificially. Results may provide information for educational materials and the mass reproduction of this butterfly.
中文摘要......................................................................................................II
英文摘要.....................................................................................................IV
圖次..............................................................................................................
表次.............................................................................................................X
附錄...........................................................................................................XII
壹、前言 .....................................................................................................1
貳、往昔研究 .............................................................................................3
一、分類地位 .......................................................................................3
二、地理分佈 .......................................................................................4
三、寄主植物和成蝶的蜜源 ...............................................................4
(一)帅蟲寄主植物 ..........................................................................4
(二)蜜源植物 ..................................................................................5
四、生物學特性 ...................................................................................5
(一)發生期與生活史 ......................................................................5
(二)各蟲期的形態描述 ..................................................................7
(三)食葉量 ....................................................................................11
五、溫度對斑蝶的影響 .....................................................................11
六、其他研究 .....................................................................................12
參、材料方法 ...........................................................................................13
一、寄主植物 .....................................................................................13
二、供試蟲源 .....................................................................................13
三、形態特徵的觀察及生活史 .........................................................14
四、帅蟲食葉量之測定 .....................................................................15
五、溫度對淡小紋青斑蝶各蟲期生長、發育之影響 .....................15
六、統計分析 .....................................................................................17
肆、結果 ...................................................................................................18
一、淡小紋青斑蝶形態描述與生活史 .............................................18
(一)卵期 ..........................................................................................18
(二)帅蟲期 ......................................................................................18
(三)蛹期 ..........................................................................................21
(四)成蟲期 ......................................................................................21
二、帅蟲期的食葉量 .........................................................................22
三、溫度對淡小紋青斑蝶各蟲期生長、發育之影響 .....................22
(一)存活率 ......................................................................................22
(二)發育期 ......................................................................................23
(三)頭殼寬 ......................................................................................25
(四)體長 ..........................................................................................26
(五)蛹重、成蟲重、翅長及翅寬 ..................................................26
(六)成蝶性比 ..................................................................................27
伍、討論 ...................................................................................................28
一、淡小紋青斑蝶形態描述 .............................................................28
二、帅蟲期食葉量 .............................................................................30
三、溫度對淡小紋青斑蝶各蟲期生長、發育之影響 .....................32
(一)淡小紋青斑蝶存活率 ..............................................................32
(二)淡小紋青斑蝶之發育 ..............................................................33
(三)帅蟲期的頭殼寬度及體長 ......................................................37
陸、結論 ...................................................................................................39
柒、參考文獻 ...........................................................................................40
捌、圖 .......................................................................................................43
玖、表 .......................................................................................................49
拾、附錄 ...................................................................................................59
王效岳。1997。中國鱗翅目(三)。臺灣省立博物館。臺北市。第212頁。
白九維、王效岳、陳小鈺。1996。中國珍稀與觀賞蝴蝶(III)。淑馨出版社。臺北市。第10-11、100-101頁。
何健鎔、張連浩。1998。南瀛彩蝶。臺灣省政府農林廳特有生物研究保育中心。臺南縣政府出版。312頁。
李俊延、王效岳。1997a。臺灣冬天的蝴蝶谷。臺灣省立博物館。臺北市。第74頁。
李俊延、王效岳。1997b。臺灣蝶類圖說(四)。臺灣省立博物館。臺北市。第16頁。
李俊延、王效岳。2007。臺灣蝴蝶圖鑑。貓頭鷹出版社。臺北市。第10、101頁。
林春吉。2005。彩蝶生態全記錄:臺灣蝴蝶食草與蜜源。綠世界出版社。宜蘭市。第238-239、308-313頁。
林亭秀。2008。臺灣保育蝴蝶色彩與形態元素應用於生活創意產品設計。南華大學應用藝術與設計學系研究所,碩士論文,第1-19頁。
張永仁。2005。蝴蝶100:臺灣常見100種蝴蝶野外觀察與生活史全記錄。遠流出版社。臺北市。224頁。
陳建志。1993。蝶-太魯閣國家公園蝴蝶資源。內政部營建署員工消費合作社太魯閣分社。花蓮。第10、62頁。
陳素瓊、歐陽盛芝、王筱媛、黃校翊、何昇儒、黃亯傑、施佳佑、陳文杰。2003。溫度對大白斑蝶(Idea leuconoe clara (Butler))(鱗翅目:斑蝶科)發育之影響。台灣昆蟲 23 : 331-351。
陳素瓊、歐陽盛芝。2002。溫度對琉球青斑蝶(Radena similes similes Linnaeus)(鱗翅目:斑蝶科) 發育之影響。台灣昆蟲22 : 237-248。
陳素瓊、歐陽盛芝。2007。玉帶鳳蝶(Papilio polytes pasikrates Fruhstorfer)(鱗翅目:鳳蝶科)的生活史。台灣昆蟲 27: 47-66。
陳維壽。1974。臺灣區蝶類大圖鑑。中國文化雜誌社。臺北市。第114頁。
陳維壽。1988。臺灣產蝶類。臺灣省政府教育廳。臺中市。第51頁。
游書萍。2008。柑橘鳳蝶(Papilio xuthus koxinga Fruhstorfer)基礎生物學之探討。國立宜蘭大學園藝學研究所碩士論文,第16-24、30-33頁。
塗文賢。2008。大鳳蝶(Papilio memnon heronus Fruhstorfer)生物學之研究。國立宜蘭大學園藝學研究所碩士論文,第16-29頁。
楊宗憲。2010。臺灣斑蝶亞科之帅生期。國立嘉義大學生物資源學研究所碩士論文第54-65頁。
詹見帄。2005。和蝴蝶做朋友。人人出版社。臺北市。第69、111-113頁。
詹家龍。2008。紫斑蝶。晨星出版社。臺中市。第264-271、330-353頁。
濱野榮次。1987。臺灣蝴蝶生態大圖鑑。牛頓出版社。臺北市。第191頁。
鄒鐘琳。1980。昆蟲生態學。上海科學技術出版社。上海。第19、27、31、55、56 頁
維基百科(http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tirumala_limniace)
臺灣生物多樣性資訊入口網(http://www.taibif.org.tw/)
Abdullah, M. 1961. Behavioural effects of temperature on insects. The Ohio Journal of Science 61: 212-219.
Ackery, P. R., and R. I. Vane-Wright. 1984. Milkweed butterflies.Their Cladistics and Biology. Cornell University Press, New York, pp 67-69.
Appala Naidu, S., and S. P. Venkata Ramana. 2010. Life cycle of the blue tiger butterfly Tirumala limniace (Lepisoptera: Rhopalocera: Danaidae).The Bioscan 5: 643-644.
Freitas, A. V. L., and K. S. Brown Jr. 2004. Phylogeny of the Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera). Syst. Biol. 53: 363-383.
Howard E., H. Aschen, and A. K. Davis. 2010. Citizen science observations of Monarch butterfly overwintering in the southern United States. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. pp 1-6.
Kunte, K. 2005. Species composition, sex-ratios and movement patterns in Danaine butterfly migrations in southern India. Journal of Bombay Natural History Soc., 102: 280-286 .
Ou-Yang, S. C., and S. C. Chen. 1994. The life history of Giant Danaine Butterfly, Idea leuconoe clara (Butler). J. Taiwan Mus. 52: 13-26.
Slansky, F. Jr. 1993. The fundamental quest for nutrients. Nutritional Ecolog. pp 29-92.
Venkata Ramana, S. P. 2010. Biodiversity and conservation of butterflies in the Eastern Ghats. Ecoscan 4: 59-67.
Wang, H. Y. 1990. Migration and overwintering aggregations of nine danaine butterfly species in Taiwan. J. Lepid. Soc. 44: 216-228.
Wong, E., P. C. Leung, and A. Wong. 2004. Miration and overwintering aggregation of Danaid butterflies in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Biodivers. pp 1-7.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔