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研究生:劉芳伶
研究生(外文):LIU, FANG-LING
論文名稱:水產鹽漬品中組織胺相關衛生品質及組織胺生產菌與分解菌之分離
論文名稱(外文):Histamine-Related Hygienic Quality and Isolation of Histamine-Forming Bacteria and Histamine-Degrading Bacteria in Salted Seafood Products
指導教授:蔡永祥 博士
指導教授(外文):Tsai Yung-Hsiang
口試委員:林家民 博士林仲聖 博士黃鈺茹 博士
口試委員(外文):Lin, Chia-MinLin, Chung-SaintHuang, Yu-Ru
口試日期:2011-07-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄海洋科技大學
系所名稱:水產食品科學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:水產鹽漬產品組織胺組織胺分解菌
外文關鍵詞:salted seafood productshistaminehistamine-degrading bacteria
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自澎湖與台灣各地漁村販售店採集57件水產鹽漬產品,包含三大種類-魚漬品 (32件)、螺貝漬品 (20件) 與蝦漬品 (5件) 等樣品,探討其組織胺相關衛生品質以及組織胺生產與分解菌分離與鑑定。在化學與微生物品質分析顯示,魚漬品、螺貝漬品與蝦漬品之平均pH值分別為5.81、5.11與6.21,平均鹽度含量分別為14.1、9.49 與8.43%,平均水活性分別為0.77、0.84與0.86, 平均總揮發性鹽基態氮則分別為99.0、55.6 與102.0 mg/100g;平均總生菌數分別為3.14、3.02與5.09 log CFU/g。其次,所有樣品並未檢出大腸桿菌群及大腸桿菌,另經統計分析得知,魚漬產品較螺貝與蝦漬產品有較高之鹽度與較低之水活性。再者,三大鹽漬品中9種生物胺平均含量小於5.0 mg/100g,並且大部份樣品之組織胺平均含量於0.15-2.05 mg/100g,但其中有9.5% (6/57)大於美國食品藥物管理局(Food and Drug Administration) 之限量標準5.0 mg/100g。另自魚漬品中分離出一株耐鹽性組織胺生產菌,經以PCR法增幅菌株之16S rDNA序列分析並鑑定為 Bacillus megaterium,於含1% histidine之TSB (TSBH)培養液於30℃下培養48小時可產生78.46 ppm組織胺;另此菌可在高達15% NaCl之TSBH中生長,並可在含有10% NaCl之TSBH中產生最高>300ppm組織胺(30℃培養72小時)。
另外,從魚漬品與螺貝漬品中,以histamine agar 篩選分離出8株具有組織胺分解性之菌株,並經鑑定為Rummeliibacillus stabekisii (1株)、Agrobacterium tumefaciens (1株)、Bacillus cereus (2株)、B. polymyxa (1株)、B. licheniformis (1株)、B. amyloliquefaciens (1株)、B. subtilis (1株)等,其中B. polymyxa 分解菌具有100%之組織胺降解率為最高。因此,分析B. polymyxa之最適生長及產生組織胺分解酶之條件,結果得知B. polymyxa於溫度25至37℃、pH 5至9以及鹽度0.5至5 %時,有良好之生長與產生組織胺去氫酶活性。然而,B. polymyxa之最適生長與產生組織胺去氫酶條件為30℃、pH 7與0.5 %鹽度培養24小時下,且於此條件下培養第6小時時,即可將histamine完全降解 (降解率達100%)。

The fifty-seven salted seafood products sold in the fishing village stores in Taiwan, including salted fish product, salted mollusk product and salted shrimp product, were tested to determine the occurrence of histamine, histamine-forming bacteria and histamine-degrading bacteria. The results showed that salted fish product, salted mollusk product and salted shrimp product had average levels of pH for 5.81, 5.11 and 6.21, salt content for 14.1, 9.49 and 8.43%, water activity for 0.77, 0.84 and 0.86, total volatile basic nitrogen for 99.0, 55.6 and 102 mg/100g, and aerobic plate count for3.14、3.02 and 5.09 log CFU/g, respectively. None of these samples contained total coliform and Escherichia coli. The average salt content of salted fish samples was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of salted mollusk samples and salted shrimp samples, whereas the average Aw value in the salted fish samples was the lowest (P<0.05). Although the average content of each of nine different biogenic amines in all samples was less than 5.0 mg/100 g, 10.5% (6/57) of tested samples had the histamine content greater than the 5.0 mg/100 g allowable limit suggested by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. One histamine-producing bacterial strain capable of producing 78.5 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0 % L-histidine (TSBH) was identified as Bacillus megaterium. The B. megaterium isolate was a halotolerant bacterium with growing well at elevated NaCl concentration to 15% in TSBH medium. Besides, it had a consistent ability to produce >300 ppm of histamine at 10% NaCl concentration in TSBH medium after 72 h.
Furthermore, eight histamine-degrading bacteria isolated from salted fish samples and salted mollusk samples were identified as Rummeliibacillus stabekisii (1strain), Agrobacterium tumefaciens (1 strain), Bacillus cereus (2 strains), B. polymyxa (1 strain), B. licheniformis (1 strain), B. amyloliquefaciens (1 strain), B. subtilis (1 strain). Among them, B. polymyxa degraded histamine up to 100% in histamine broth. Therefore, the well range of temperature, pH and salt concentration for growth and histamine degradation of B. polymyxa were 25-37℃, pH 5-9 and 0.5-5% NaCl, respectively. However, the optimal growth and histamine dehydrogenase activity of B. polymyxa were at 30℃, pH 7 and 0.5% NaCl for 24 h incubation.

中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
誌謝 V
目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 XI
壹、研究動機 1
貳、文獻整理
一、水產加工製品 3
二、水產鹽漬品之原料介紹 4
三、魚貝類之鮮度判定指標 11
四、微生物鑑定與試驗 15
五、食品中之生物胺 18
六、組織胺 21
七、組織胺分解菌 27
參、水產鹽漬品中組織胺相關衛生品質探討
一、前言 39
二、材料與方法 42
三、結果與討論 55
肆、水產鹽漬品中組織胺分解菌之分離與性質探討
一、前言 71
二、材料與方法 74
三、結果與討論 80
伍、結論 95
陸、參考文獻 97


表目錄
表2.1 生物胺之化學結構及其前驅物質 30
表2.2 常見組織胺中毒之魚種 31
表2.3 台灣近年來發生之組織胺中毒案件 32
表2-4. 各國食品中組織胺含量限量標準 33
表2-5. 從魚肉中分離出具組織胺產生能力之腸內菌種類 34
表2-6. 台灣市售食品之組織胺生產菌及組織胺含量 36
表3-1. 細菌分離株16S rRNA 基因PCR 反應所使用之引子 62
表3-2. 市售57件水產鹽漬品中pH值、鹽分、水活性 (Aw) 、總揮發性鹽基態氮、總生菌數、大腸桿菌群及大腸桿菌之分析 63
表3-3. 市售57件三大種類水產鹽漬品之pH、鹽度、水活性與總揮發性鹽基態氮分布 64
表3-4. 市售57件水產鹽漬品中生物胺之含量 65
表3-5. 市售57件水產鹽漬品之組織胺分布 66
表3-6. 魚漬品中所分離組織胺生產菌以 16S rDNA序列鑑定結果及其組織胺與其他生物胺產量 67
表4-1. 從水產鹽漬品中分離之組織胺分解菌於含有 50 ppm組織胺培養基培養 30 ℃、1天後之組織胺降解率與菌種鑑定 85


圖目錄
圖 2-1. 食品中生物胺之形成路徑 37
圖 2-2. 組織胺之代謝途徑 38
圖 3-1. 實驗架構 41
圖 3-2. 生物胺標準品之HPLC層析圖 68
圖3-3. 組織胺生產菌以引子UNI-L及UNI-R經PCR增幅反應所得到的16S rDNA (約1400 bp)之產物電泳圖;Lane N:負控制組, 1:
組織胺生產菌株, Lane M為標準分子量標記 69
圖 3-4. Bacillus megaterium A03於含有0.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% NaCl之TSBH培養液中生長及組織胺之產量 70
圖 4-1. 實驗架構 73
圖 4-2. 組織胺分解菌 Bacillus polymyxa 培養於histamine broth在不同溫度(4, 15, 25, 30, 37, 45℃)下之生長 86
圖 4-3. 組織胺分解菌 B. polymyxa培養於histamine broth在不同溫度(4, 15, 25, 30, 37, 45℃)下之組織胺去氫酶活性 87
圖 4-4. 組織胺分解菌 B. polymyxa培養於histamine broth在不同溫度(4, 15, 25, 30, 37, 45℃)下之組織胺降解率 88
圖 4-5. 組織胺分解菌 B. polymyxa培養於不同pH值 (1.0-14.0) 之histamine broth 30℃,24h之細菌數 89
圖 4-6. 組織胺分解菌 B. polymyxa培養於不同pH值 (1.0-14.0) 之histamine broth 30℃,24h之組織胺去氫酶活性 90
圖 4-7. 組織胺分解菌 B. polymyxa培養於不同pH值 (1.0-14.0) 之histamine broth 30℃,24h之組織胺降解率 91
圖 4-8. 組織胺分解菌 B. polymyxa培養於不同鹽濃度(0.5、5.0、10.0、15.0、20%)之histamine broth (pH 7.0) 30℃,
24h之細菌數 92
圖 4-9. 組織胺分解菌 B. polymyxa培養於不同鹽濃度(0.5、5.0、10.0、15.0、20%)之histamine broth (pH 7.0) 30℃,
24h之組織胺去氫酶活性 93
圖 4-10.組織胺分解菌 B. polymyxa培養於不同鹽濃度(0.5、5.0、10.0、15.0、20%)之histamine broth (pH 7.0) 30℃,
24h之組織胺降解率 94

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