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研究生:簡莎俐
研究生(外文):Chien,Shally
論文名稱:梅汁及乳酸添加對泡菜產品特性之探討
論文名稱(外文):Study of mei puree and lactic acid additives on kimchi products
指導教授:謝淑玲謝淑玲引用關係江啟銘江啟銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsieh,Shu-LingChiang,Chi-Ming
口試委員:謝淑玲江啟銘蔡美玲
口試委員(外文):Hsieh,Shu-LingChiang,Chi-MingTsai,Mei-Ling
口試日期:2011-06-07
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄海洋科技大學
系所名稱:水產食品科學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:韓式泡菜
外文關鍵詞:Kimchi
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韓式泡菜(Kimchi)的原料為大白菜,經初步鹽漬及脫鹽處理,然後再加入蒜、薑、蔥、洋蔥、辣椒、食鹽及魚露等配料後進行醃漬,經自然醱酵得到具有獨特風味的醱酵製品。目前韓式泡菜的商品在市場上已經很普遍,超市所販售的泡菜產品,通常在冷藏溫度下可以貯藏1個月,但傳統市場在販售或貯存時因為溫度管控不良,以致於溫度的波動過大,使得泡菜的品質不易控制(例如貯存溫度升高時,微生物醱酵加速,相對的會有產氣(膨包)的情形,甚至會有過酸的現象),進而縮短其架上壽命。因此,本研究將事先添加梅汁及乳酸至醃漬液的方式製造韓式泡菜(分成原味﹐梅汁+乳酸﹐乳酸三組),再將醃漬成品貯藏於室溫(25~27℃)及低溫(2~4℃),並探討不同組別的韓式泡菜產品在醱酵過程中pH值、酸度、色澤、菌相變化以及感官品評之測定。
結果顯示,室溫醃漬期間「原味」組的總生菌數和乳酸菌生長速度及菌數皆最高,其次為「乳酸」組,「梅汁+乳酸」組的菌數最低;pH值方面,「原味」組的pH值快速下降,而「乳酸」和「梅汁+乳酸」二組的起始pH值雖然較低,但醱酵期間呈現穩定平衡狀態,最終的pH值則三組相近;酸度方面,隨著醱酵時間增加酸度持續增加,最高的為「原味」組,其次為「乳酸」組,最低的為「梅汁+乳酸」組;色澤方面,醃漬初期或醃漬後期都呈現「梅汁+乳酸」及「乳酸」二組優於「原味」組;消費者喜好性方面,醃漬初期或醃漬後期「乳酸」組整體表現最佳,而「原味」組表現較差。
低溫醃漬期間,「原味」組無論在總生菌數及乳酸菌數都較「梅汁+乳酸」及「乳酸」組二組菌數增加迅速,醃漬3~5週期間「原味」組菌數皆高於「梅汁+乳酸」及「乳酸」組4 log CFU/g 以上;酸度、pH值、色澤方面和室溫醃漬期間的變化類似;消費者喜好性方面,醃漬初期「乳酸」「梅汁+乳酸」二組表現優於「原味」組,醃漬後期則「梅汁+乳酸」組整體表現最佳。
實驗結果顯示,預先以梅汁及乳酸調整醃漬液的酸鹼度,除了能有效控制微生物生長、保持色澤、受消費者喜愛外,更使韓式泡菜在一開始即具有即食性,同時也達到延長保存期限的目的。

Kimchi of the raw materials for Chinese cabbage, were salted and desalination, then add garlic, ginger, green onion, onion, pepper, salt, and pickled fish sauce , through natural fermentation with a unique flavor by the fermentation products. Kimchi found in supermarkets can be stored up to one month in cold temperature, However, the traditional market in the sale or storage because the temperature control when the poor, so that large fluctuations in temperature, which makes it difficult to control the quality of its quality. For example, the rise of storage temperature will lead to the fermentation speed of germs, which in turn will produce gas or even the excessive sourness. Therefore, this study incorporates the method of adding
mei puree and lactic acid pickling pre-adjusted solution in the production of Kimchi (divided into no addition, mei puree + lactic acid, three groups of lactic acid), and then store the pickled products at room (25~27℃) and low temperatures (2 ~4℃). And explore the different groups of Kimchi products in the fermentation process pH value, acidity, color, flora changes and sensory evaluation of the determination.
The pickling period at room temperature, the "no addition" group, the growing rates of total plate counts and lactic acid bacteria counts, and the bacterial counts are the greates, followed by "lactic acid" group, and the lowest number of bacteria is "mei puree + lactic acid" group. In terms of pH value, pH value of the "no addition" group declines rapidly, although the initial pH value lower of "lactic acid" and "mei puree + lactic acid" the two groups, but the stable during the fermentation balance, the final pH value of the three groups are similar. In terms of acidity, acidity continues to increase as the fermentation progresses, with the highest being the "no addition" group, followed by "lactic acid" group, the lowest being "mei puree + lactic acid" group. In terms of color, the pickled or salted late have shown early, "mei puree + lactic acid" and "lactic acid" show better results than the "no addition" group in both the early and later stages of fermentation. In terms of consumer preferences, "lactic acid" shows the best overall performance in both early and later stages of fermentation, while the "no addition" group performance is poor.
During the period of low-temperatured fermentation, the total plate counts and lactic acid bacteria of the “no addition” group increase more rapidly than those of “mei puree + lactic acid” and “lactic acid”. During the 3-5 week period of fermentation, of the “no addition” group total bacteria counts are higher than those of "mei puree + lactic acid" and "lactic acid" by 4 log CFU/g or more. In terms of acidity, pH value, or color, the changes are similar to the fermentation period at room temperature. In terms of consumer preferences, "lactic acid" and "mei puree + lactic acid" perform better at initial stages of fermentation period than the "no addition" group, while "mei puree + lactic acid" have overall performance during the later stage of fermentation.
The results show that the pH pre-adjusted with mei puree and lactic acids can not only efficiently control the growth of microorganism, maintain its coloring, enjoy consumer preferences, but also make Kimchi edible right from the beginning and reach the target of extending its period of shelf-life.

中文摘要................................................. Ⅱ
英文摘要................................................. Ⅳ
誌謝 ....................................................VI
目錄 ....................................................VII
表次 ................................................. XII
圖次...................................................XIII
壹、實驗動機與目的.........................................1
貳、文獻回顧...............................................3
一、益生菌.................................................3
1.益生菌的定義........................................3
2.乳酸菌之定義........................................3
3.乳酸菌的醱酵........................................5
4.乳酸菌的保健功效....................................8
二、乳酸菌與乳酸醱酵蔬菜..................................13
1.乳酸菌在食品中之運用...............................13
2.乳酸醱酵蔬菜.......................................15
三、韓式泡菜..............................................15
1.韓式泡菜的歷史.....................................16
2.韓式泡菜的製作過程.................................16
3.韓式泡菜的材料.....................................16
4.韓式泡菜的醱酵過程...................................19
5.韓式泡菜的營養成分與機能特性.........................20
四、梅子...................................................21五、乳酸...................................................22
參、材料與方法.............................................23一、實驗架構...............................................23
二、實驗材料...............................................24
1.原料.................................................24
2.培養基………...................................24
3.儀器.....................................25
三、實驗方法...............................................26
1.大白菜的醃漬處理.....................................26
2.醃漬液的製作.........................................26
3.韓式泡菜(Kimchi)的製作................................26
4.韓式泡菜的分析方法 ...................................27
4.1.成分分析..........................................27
A.pH值 .............................................27
B.可滴定酸度........................................27
C.Hunter L, a, b值.....................................28
4.2.微生物分析........................................28
A.總生菌數..........................................28
B.總乳酸菌數........................................29
4.3.官能品評分析.....................................30
A.外觀.........................................30
B.感官品評......................................31
4.4.統計分析.......................................31
肆、結果與討論............................................33
一、室溫下醃漬韓式泡菜於醃漬期間之微生物與成分變化........33
1.1.白菜鹽漬前後總生菌及乳酸菌之比較.................33
1.2.總生菌數及乳酸菌生長趨勢.........................34
1.3. pH值與酸度之變化................................37
1.3.1. 醃漬液中pH值與酸度之變化.................37
1.3.2. 菜梗之pH值與酸度之變化...................39
1.4.外觀之影響........................................42
1.5.顏色之測定........................................42
1.5.1.醃漬液色澤之變化...........................44
1.5.2.菜梗色澤之變化.............................46
1.6.室溫醃漬韓式泡菜之感官品評........................48
1.6.1. 室溫醃漬韓式泡菜第1天之感官品評..........49
1.6.2. 室溫醃漬韓式泡菜第7天之感官品評..........51
二.低溫下醃漬韓式泡菜於醃漬期間之微生物與成分變化.........53
2.1. 總生菌數及乳酸菌生長趨勢.........................54
2.2. pH值與酸度之變化................................56
2.2.1.醃漬液中pH值與酸度之變化..................57
2.2.2. 菜梗之pH值與酸度之變化...................59
2.3.外觀之影響........................................63
2.4.顏色之測定........................................63
2.4.1.醃漬液色澤之變化...........................65
2.4.2.菜梗色澤之變化.............................67
2.5.低溫醃漬韓式泡菜之感官品評........................69
2.5.1.低溫醃漬韓式泡菜第1週之感官品評...........69
2.5.2.低溫醃漬韓式泡菜第8週之感官品評...........71
伍、結論..................................................74
陸、參考文獻...............................................75

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