跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.84.188) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/05 00:23
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林雲龍
研究生(外文):Lin, Yunlung
論文名稱:高雄港海洋棄置區沉積物丁基錫分佈與累積
論文名稱(外文):Distribution and accumulation of butyltins in sediments of the ocean disposal site of Kaohsiung Harbor
指導教授:陳秋妏陳秋妏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Chiuwen
口試委員:董正釱陳秋妏高志明陳志峰葉雨松
口試委員(外文):Dong, ChengdiChen, ChiuwenKao, ChihmingChen, ChihfengYeh, Yusung
口試日期:2011-07-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄海洋科技大學
系所名稱:海洋環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:145
中文關鍵詞:高雄港海洋棄置區三丁基錫二丁基錫單丁基錫丁基錫降解指數沉積物品質準則TBT-生物效應
外文關鍵詞:Kaohsiung HarborOcean Disposal SiteTributyltinDibutyltinMonobutyltinButyltin degradation indexSediment Quality GuidelinesTBT-specific biological effects
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:265
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究主要目的為探討高雄港海洋棄置區沉積物中丁基錫化合物(butyltins, BTs)濃度分佈及累積程度。採樣為2009至2010年,每季採樣一次,共八季。調查項目包括沉積物基本性質及丁基錫化合物等。分析結果顯示,2009年期間棄置區沉積物中總丁基錫濃度介於nd~1.11 ng Sn/g dw (S06測點)之間,且丁基錫化合物以三丁基錫(47.7%)為主,而影響點皆低於方法偵測極限(method detection limit, MDL);2010年期間棄置區沉積物總丁基錫濃度介於nd~87.3 ng Sn/g dw (S07測點),相對高於影響點(nd~21.6 ng Sn/g dw)的0.61~16.4倍之多,且丁基錫化合物亦以三丁基錫(tributyltin, TBT)的89.1%為主。沉積物中丁基錫含量在2010年較高於2009年,係由於2009年主要疏浚低丁基錫含量之港口及航道沉積物,而2010年則是針對高丁基錫含量之漁港及修造船廠之沉積物;且疏浚沉積物主要棄置於棄置區內,導致棄置區內丁基錫含量較高於其它區域。
四個輪拋區中心(S06、S07、S08及S09)測點岩心沉積物總丁基錫含量分別介於nd~15.8、nd~43.6、nd~15.0及nd~12.2 ng Sn/g dw之間,且丁基錫化合物係以三丁基錫(79.3%、67.5%、69.0%及74.5%)為主;岩心沉積物在表層(約0~5 cm)處之丁基錫含量較高於中、下層,顯示疏浚沉積物主要滯留於海床上,不易對海床下之沉積物造成影響。
沉積物三丁基錫污染程度(TBT-contaminated sediment classification)評估結果顯示2010年期間棄置區沉積物介於中~高度污染程度,而2009年期間則屬於未受污染程度。另一方面,三丁基錫-生物效應(TBT-specific biological effects)評估結果顯示2010年期間棄置區沉積物三丁基錫濃度可能會導致底棲生物不孕。與沉積物品質準則(sediment quality guidelines, SQGs)比較結果顯示2010年期間棄置區內之生物影響或危害機率較高於其它區域。丁基錫降解指數(butyltin degradation index, BDI)結果顯示相對於受疏浚沉積物影響之棄置區,棄置區外之影響點沉積物並未受到疏浚沉積物影響或影響不大。
本研究結果顯示浚泥海洋棄置行為可能會導致高雄港海洋棄置區沉積物中丁基錫含量的提高,且可能對當地海域生態系統造成影響。
The distribution of butyltins (BTs) compounds in sediments of the Ocean Disposal Site of Kaohsiung Harbor was investigated in this study. The sediment samples which were collected from nine stations and outside of three stations of Ocean Disposal Site in 2009 and 2010. The case of study analyzed for characteristic of their and BTs compounds, etc.
The case of experimental showed, the concentration of total butyltins (ΣBTs) during 2009 were varied from not detected (nd) to 1.11 ng Sn/g dw (as station S06) in disposal stations, in which most of BTs came from TBT (47.7%), and influence stations were below method detection limit (MDL). Comparatively, the BTs concentration during 2010 that were varied from nd to 87.3 ng Sn/g dw (as station S07) at the disposal stations, and it's 0.16 to 16.4 times influence stations (nd the 21.6 ng Sn/g dw), in which most of BTs came from TBT (89.1%). In 2010, the contractions of BTs in sediments from the disposal site were higher than in 2009. It was because the disposal site was mainly exposed to the low concentration of BTs in dredged sediments from harbor and channels in 2009. It was mainly high concentrations of BTs because fishing ports and shipyard practiced dredged sediments in 2010. The concentrations of BTs in sediment at disposal site interior were higher than other areas, due to the dredged sediment input to the disposal site interior.
Referring to the TBT-contamination sediment classifications. The research of study showed, the sediment samples' disposal stations could be classified as lightly to moderately contaminate in 2010, likewise the disposal site could be classified as uncontaminated in 2009. On the other hand, when referring to the TBT-specific biological effects showed, the TBT concentration within the sediment samples of disposal stations might affect benthos but didn't necessary to respond to females being sterile in 2010. To refer the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs), of result showed hazarded of biological in sediment was from disposal site interior that was higher than other areas in 2010. The butyltin degradation index (BDI) showed the disposal sites by impact of dredged sediments, and didn't effect at influence stations.
In 2010, the ΣBTs concentration were varied from nd to 15.8, nd to 43.6, nd to 15.0, and nd to 12.2 ng Sn/g dw in core samples from the four rotation of disposed areas (S06, S07, S08, and S09 stations), in which most of BTs came from TBT (79.3%, 67.5%, 69.0%, and 74.5%). The data showed the BTs concentration on surface sediments were higher than other core sediments. These dredged sediments were from Kaohsiung Harbor which mainly remained on surface sediments of disposal site and didn't impact of sediments under the disposal sites.
The results of study showed the BTs concentration in sediments were from the disposal stations were higher influence stations and can adversely affect the diversity and abundance of the benthic community through the impact of ocean disposal behavior.
中文摘要..................................................I
ABSTRACT..................................................III
誌謝..................................................V
目錄..................................................VI
表目錄..................................................X
圖目錄..................................................XII
符號說明..................................................XIV
第一章 前言..................................................1
1.1 研究緣起..................................................1
1.2 研究目的..................................................3
第二章 文獻回顧..................................................4
2.1 海洋棄置區背景..................................................4
2.2 海洋棄置物質..................................................10
2.2.1 高雄港沉積物疏浚情形..........................................10
2.2.2 高雄港沉積物含丁基錫之含量..................................................15
2.3 丁基錫介紹..................................................18
2.3.1 丁基錫化合物之物化特性..................................................18
2.3.2 丁基錫化合物之用途及用量..................................................20
2.3.3 丁基錫化合物之環境流佈與宿命..................................................24
2.3.4 丁基錫化合物之生物毒性..................................................28
2.3.5 丁基錫分析方法彙整..................................................32
2.3.6 丁基錫化合物評估方法..................................................34
2.4 海洋棄置行為對海域環境的影響..................................................37
第三章 材料與方法..................................................39
3.1 採樣測點規劃..................................................39
3.2 樣品採集..................................................41
3.3 化學藥品及試劑製備..................................................43
3.4 實驗設備及儀器..................................................47
3.5 基本性質分析..................................................49
3.6 樣品分析及品保品管 ..................................................52
3.6.1 沉積物樣品前處理..................................................52
3.6.2 丁基錫化合物分析流程..................................................52
3.6.3 品保品管..................................................55
3.7 高雄港海洋棄置區沉積物丁基錫化合物評估方法..................................................59
第四章 結果與討論..................................................60
4.1 高雄港海洋棄置區沉積物基本性質..................................................60
4.1.1 表層沉積物基本性質.................................................. 60
4.1.2 岩心沉積物基本性質.................................................. 71
4.2 高雄港海洋棄置區沉積物丁基錫濃度分佈情形..................................................80
4.3 高雄港海洋棄置區沉積物丁基錫化合物時空分佈..................................................89
4.3.1 沉積物丁基錫含量時間分佈..................................................91
4.3.2 沉積物丁基錫含量空間分佈..................................................94
4.4 高雄港海洋棄置區沉積物丁基錫污染程度評估..................................................100
4.5 高雄港海洋棄置區沉積物品質評估..................................................103
4.6 高雄港海洋棄置區沉積物丁基錫生物效應評估..................................................107
4.7 高雄港海洋棄置區沉積物丁基錫降解情形..................................................111
4.8 海洋棄置區岩心沉積物丁基錫濃度垂直分佈情形..................................................114
4.9 沉積物基本性質與丁基錫含量之統計分析..................................................120
4.9.1 主成份分析結果..................................................120
4.9.2 相關性分析結果..................................................120
第五章 結論與建議..................................................122
5.1 結論..................................................122
5.2 建議..................................................124
參考文獻..................................................125
附錄..................................................135
附錄1. 高雄港海洋棄置區沉積物丁基錫濃度..................................................136
附錄2. 沉積物基本性質與丁基錫化合物之主成份分析..................................................144
附錄3. 沉積物基本性質與丁基錫化合物之相關性分析..................................................145

Arnold, C., Ciani, A., Müller, S. R., Amirbahman, A., and Schwarzenbach, R.P. (1998). Association of triorganotin compounds with dissolved humic acids. Environmental Science and Technology, 32(19), 2976-2983.
Bamber, R.N. (1984). The benthos of a marine fly-ash dumping ground. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 64(01), 211.
Bangkedphol, S., Keenan, H.E., Davidson, C., Sakultantimetha, A., and Songsasen, A. (2009). The partition behavior of tributyltin and prediction of environmental fate, persistence and toxicity in aquatic environments. Chemosphere, 77(10), 1326-1332.
Bhosle, N.B., Garg, A., Harji, R., Jadhav, S., Sawant, S.S., Krishnamurthy, V., and Chandrashekar, A. (2006). Butyltins in the sediments of Kochi and Mumbai harbours, west coast of India. Environment International, 32(2), 252-258.
Bhosle, N.B., Garg, A., Jadhav, S., Harjee, R., Sawant, S.S., Venkat, K., and Chandrashekar, A. (2004). Butyltins in water, biofilm, animals and sediments of the west coast of India. Chemosphere, 57(8), 897-907.
Bonnet, C., Babut, M., Férard, J., Martel, L., and Garric, J. (2000). Assessing the potential toxicity of resuspended sediment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 19(5), 1290-1296.
Bulten, E.J. and Meinema, H.A., 1991. Tin. in: Merian, E., Editor, 1991. Metals and their compounds in the environment. Weinheim, Germany, VCH, 1245-1259.
Burton, E.D., Phillips, I.R., and Hawker, D.W. (2004). Sorption and desorption behavior of tributyltin with natural sediment. Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 6694-6700.
Burton, E.D., Phillips, I.R., and Hawker, D.W. (2005). In-situ partitioning of butyltin compounds in estuarine sediment. Chemosphere, 59(5), 585-592.
Cassi, R., Tolosa, I., and de Mora, S. (2008). A survey of antifoulants in sediments from ports and marinas along the French Mediterranean coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56(11), 1943-1948.
Chen, C.F., Kao, C.M., Dong, C.D., and Chen, C.W. (2010). Butyltin contamination in sediments and seawater from Kaohsiung harbor, Taiwan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 169(1-4), 75-87.
Crowe, S.E., Gayes, P.T., Viso, R.F., Bergquist, D.C., Jutte, P.C., and Van Dolah, R.F. (2010). Impact of the Charleston ocean dredged material disposal site on nearby hard bottom reef habitats. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(5), 679-691.
de Carvalho Oliveira, R., and Santelli, R.E. (2010). Occurrence and chemical speciation analysis of organotin compounds in the environment: A review. Talanta, 82(1), 9-24.
de Oliveira, C.R., dos Santos, D., dos Santos Madureira, L.A., and de Marchi, M.R.R. (2010). Speciation of butyltin derivatives in surface sediments of three southern Brazilian harbors. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 181(1-3), 851-856.
Díez, S., Ábalos, M., and Bayona, J.M. (2002). Organotin contamination in sediments from the Western Mediterranean enclosures following 10 years of TBT regulation. Water Research, 36(4), 905-918.
Díez, S., and Bayona, J.M. (2009). Butyltin occurrence and risk assessment in the sediments of the Iberian peninsula. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(1), S25-S30.
Díez, S., Jover, E., Albaigés, J., and Bayona, J.M. (2006). Occurrence and degradation of butyltins and wastewater marker compounds in sediments from Barcelona harbor, Spain. Environment International, 32(7), 858-865.
Díez, S., Lacorte, S., Viana, P., Barceló, D., and Bayona, J.M. (2005). Survey of organotin compounds in rivers and coastal environments in Portugal 1999-2000. Environmental Pollution, 136(3), 525-536.
Dowson, P.H., Bubb, J.M., and Lester, J.N. (1993). Temporal distribution of organotins in the aquatic environment: Five years after the 1987 UK retail ban on TBT based antifouling paints. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 26(9), 487-494.
Dowson, P.H., Bubb, J.M., Williams, T.P., and Lester, J.N. (1993). Degradation of tributyltin in freshwater and estuarine marina sediments. Water Science and Technology, 28(8-9), 133-137.
Evans, C., and Karpel, S. (1985). Organotin compounds in modern technology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985.
FTB,(2011),經濟部國際貿易局經貿資訊網,http://www.trade.gov.tw/。
Garg, A., Meena, R.M., Jadhav, S., and Bhosle, N.B. (2011). Distribution of butyltins in the waters and sediments along the coast of India. Marine Pollution Bulletin.
German standard method. (1999). Draft DIN 38407-13, Determination of selected organotin compounds by means of gas chromatography (F13), as of October 1999.
Gibbs, P.E., Pascoe, P.L., and Burt, G.R. (1988). Sex change in the female dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus, induced by tributyltin from antifouling paints. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 68, 715-731.
Gullaya, W. (2008). Status of butyltin contamination in Thailand coastal waters. Coastal Marine Science, 32(1), 82-87.
Hala, D., Bristeau, S., Dagnac, T., and Jobling, S. (2010). The unexpected sources of organotin contamination in aquatic toxicological laboratory studies. Aquatic Toxicology, 96(4), 314-318.
Hoch, M. (2001). Organotin compounds in the environment-an overview. Applied Geochemistry, 16(7-8), 719-743.
Horiguchi, T., Shiraishi, H., Shimizu, M., and Morita, M. (1994). Imposex and organotin compounds in Thais clavigera and T. bronni in Japan. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 74, 651-669.
Huggett, R.J., Unger, M.A., Seligman, P.F., and Valkirs, A.O. (1992). The marine biocide tributyltin. assessing and managing the environmental risks. Environmental Science and Technology, 26(2), 232-237.
KHB,(2011),交通部高雄港務局全球資訊網,http://www.khb.gov.tw/。
Lee, C.C., Hsieh, C.Y., and Tien, C.J. (2006). Factors influencing organotin distribution in different marine environmental compartments, and their potential health risk. Chemosphere, 65(4), 547-559.
Lee, S., Chung, J., Won, H., Lee, D., and Lee, Y. (2011). Analysis of antifouling agents after regulation of tributyltin compounds in Korea. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 185(2-3), 1318-1325.
Leung, K.M.Y., Kwong, R.P.Y., Ng, W.C., Horiguchi, T., Qiu, J.W., Yang, R., Song, M., Jiang, G., Zheng, G.J., and Lam, P.K.S. (2006). Ecological risk assessments of endocrine disrupting organotin compounds using marine neogastropods in Hong Kong. Chemosphere, 65(6), 922-938.
Liu, L., Wang, J., Chung, K., Leu, M., and Meng, P. (2011). Distribution and accumulation of organotin species in seawater, sediments and organisms collected from a Taiwan mariculture area. Marine Pollution Bulletin.
Loch, J.P.G., and Greve, P.A. (1990). Accumulation and leaching of the fungicide fentin acetate and intermediates in sandy soil. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 112, 145-152.
Loring, D.H., and Rantala, R.T.T. (1992). Manual for the geochemical analyses of marine sediments and suspended particulate matter. Earth-Science Reviews, 32(4), 235-283.
Meng, P.J, Lin, J., Liu, L.L. (2009). Aquatic organotin pollution in Taiwan. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(1), S8-S15.
Michaud, M.H., and Pelletier, É. (2006). Sources and fate of butyltins in the St. Lawrence estuary ecosystem. Chemosphere, 64(7), 1074-1082.
Omae, I. (2003). Organotin antifouling paints and their alternatives. Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 17(2), 81-105.
OSPAR. (2005). 2005 Assessment of data collected under the Co-ordinated Environmental Monitoring Programme (CEMP).
OSPAR. (2009). CEMP assessment report: 2008/2009 assessment of trends and concentrations of selected hazardous substances in sediments and biota.
Pearson, T. H., Ansell, A.D., and Robb, L. (1986). The benthos of the deeper sediments of the firth of Clyde, with particular reference to organic enrichment. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 90B, 329-350.
Peter, H. S. (2001). 海洋工業在環境評估的架構. World Bank , 18-91.
Pinto, B., Pellegrini, D., Gabellini, M., and Ausili, A. (1995). Harbour and coastal sediment chemistry and toxicity: A preliminary assessment of dredging activities. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery, 4(4), 249-255.
Radenac, G., Miramand, P., and Tardy, J. (1997). Search for impact of a dredged material disposal site on growth and metal contamination of Mytilus edulis (L.) in Charente-Maritime (France). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34(9), 721-729.
Radke, B., Łęczyński, L., Wasik, A., Namieśnik, J., and Bolalek, J. (2008). The content of butyl- and phenyltin derivatives in the sediment from the port of Gdansk. Chemosphere, 73(3), 407-414.
Rantakokko, P., Hallikainen, A., Airaksinen, R., Vuorinen, P.J., Lappalainen, A., Mannio, J., and Vartiainen, T. (2010). Concentrations of organotin compounds in various fish species in the Finnish lake waters and Finnish coast of the Baltic Sea. Science of the Total Environment, 408(12), 2474-2481.
Rodríguez, J.G., Solaun, O., Larreta, J., Belzunce Segarra, M.J., Franco, J., Ignacio García Alonso, J., Sariego, C., Valencia,V., and Borja, Á. (2010). Baseline of butyltin pollution in coastal sediments within the Basque Country (northern Spain), in 2007-2008. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(1), 139-145.
Saint-Louis, R., Gobeil, C., and Pelletier, E. (1997). Tributyltin and its degradation products in the St Lawrence estuary (Canada). Environmental Technology, 18, 1209-1218.
Schipper, C.A., Rietjens, I.M.C.M., Burgess, R.M., and Murk, A.J. (2010). Application of bioassays in toxicological hazard, risk and impact assessments of dredged sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(11), 2026-2042.
Selvaraj, K., Parthiban, G., Arthur Chen, C., and Lou, J. (2010). Anthropogenic effects on sediment quality offshore southwestern Taiwan: Assessing the sediment core geochemical record. Continental Shelf Research, 30(10-11), 1200-1210.
Strand, J., Jacobsen, J.A., Pedersen, B., and Granmo, Å. (2003). Butyltin compounds in sediment and molluscs from the shipping strait between Denmark and Sweden. Environmental Pollution, 124(1), 7-15.
Strand, J., Jørgensen, A., and Tairova, Z. (2009). TBT pollution and effects in molluscs at US Virgin Islands, Caribbean Sea. Environment International, 35(4), 707-711.
Stronkhorst, J., Ariese, F., van Hattum, B., Postma, J.F., de Kluijver, M., Den Besten, P.J., Bergman, M.J.N., Daan, R., Murk, A.J., and Vethaak, A.D. (2003). Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea. Environmental Pollution, 124(1), 17-31.
Sun, H., Huang, G., and Dai, S. (1996). Adsorption behaviour and qspr studies of organotin compounds on estuarine sediment. Chemosphere, 33(5), 831-838.
Tang, C., Hsu, C., and Wang, W. (2010). Butyl tin accumulation in marine bivalves under field conditions in Taiwan. Marine Environmental Research, 70(2), 125-132.
USEPA. (1996). Recommendations for screening values for tributyltin in sediments at superfund sites in Puget Sound. EPA ECL-111.
Valkirs, A.O., Seligman, P.F., Stang, P.M., Homer, V., Lieberman, S.H., Vafa, G., and Dooley, C.A. (1986). Measurement of butyltin compounds in San Diego Bay. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 17(7), 319-324.
Wang, X., Hong, H., Zhao, D., and Hong, L. (2008). Environmental behavior of organotin compounds in the coastal environment of Xiamen, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 57(6-12), 419-424.
Wang, X., Jin, H., Ding, L., Zhang, H., Zhang, H., Qu, C., and Yu, A. (2008). Organotin speciation in textile and plastics by microwave-assisted extraction HPLC-ESI-MS. Talanta, 75(2), 556-563.
WHO. (1990). Environmental health criteria 116: Tributyltin compounds. Geneva: World Health Organization.
WHO. (1999). Concise international chemical assessment document 14: Tributyltin oxide. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Wilken, R.D., Kuballa, J., and Jantzen, E. (1994). Organotins their analysis and assessment in the Elbe river system, north Germany. Fresenius' Journal Analytical Chemistry, 350, 77-84.
Yamabe, Y., and Hoshino, A. (2000). Enhancement of androgen- dependent transcription and cell proliferation by tributyltin and triphenyltin in human prostate cancer cell. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 169, 177-184.
Yamamoto, J., Yonezawa, Y., Nakata, K., and Horiguchi, F. (2009). Ecological risk assessment of TBT in Ise Bay. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(1), S41-S50s.
王甜,(2002),近海、野生及養殖魚種有機錫污染調查及一般民眾食入暴露風險評估,國立成功大學,碩士論文。
成功大學水工試驗所,(1992),高雄海域氣象調查研究。水工試驗所研究試驗報告第140號。
吳明峯,(2007),高雄旗津港區的有機錫污染調查及評估,國立高雄海洋科技大學,碩士論文。
李俊璋、王應然、孫逸民及田倩蓉,(2003),毒性化學物質環境流布調查分析計畫,行政院環境保護署。
林建輝,(2010),環境荷爾蒙國際管理趨勢及我國管理策略,環境荷爾蒙及持久性有機污染物研討會論文集,2-3。
唐川禾,(2007),鹿耳門溪及四草漁港環境及生物體中有機錫之研究,國立中山大學,博士論文。
陳志峰,(2010),港區沉積物丁基錫及多環芳香烴化合物污染評估,國立中山大學,博士論文。
陳昭達,(2009),高雄港區沉積物中三丁基錫污染評估,國立高雄海洋科技大學,碩士論文。
陳秋妏、董正釱及張麗珍,(2010),九十九年港區淤泥、生態及水質委託監測工作,高雄港務局。
曾相茂,(2008),臺灣地區國際港附近海域海氣象現場調查分析研究,交通部運輸研究所。
楊平,(2009),高雄市愛河流域有機錫物種及其分布之研究,國立中山大學,碩士論文。
楊琇瑩,(2000),環境荷爾蒙對水生生物的影響,環境荷爾蒙及持久性有機污染物研討會論文集,61-67。
董正釱、唐存勇、夏復國、方力行、陳秋妏及張麗珍,(2010),99年度高雄港浚泥海洋棄置影響評監測及申請,高雄港務局。
劉慧煜,(2007),高雄港有機錫化合物分佈調查與評估,國立高雄海洋科技大學,碩士論文。
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 朴英培、黃俊英與郭崑謨(1990)。工作價值觀、領導型態、工作滿足與組織承諾關係之研究—以韓國電子業為例,管理評論,7,53-87。
2. 王瑤芬、洪久賢、林咨攸(2008),國際觀光旅館餐飲部員工組織承諾、職涯滿意、工作價值觀、適配度之因果關係研究。觀光休閒學報,14 (3),277-302。
3. 王瑤芬、洪久賢、林咨攸(2008),國際觀光旅館餐飲部員工組織承諾、職涯滿意、工作價值觀、適配度之因果關係研究。觀光休閒學報,14 (3),277-302。
4. 王瑤芬、洪久賢、林咨攸(2008),國際觀光旅館餐飲部員工組織承諾、職涯滿意、工作價值觀、適配度之因果關係研究。觀光休閒學報,14 (3),277-302。
5. 蔡育佑(2006)。運動教練工作價值觀與組織承諾關係之研究,體育學報,39 (2)。
6. 蔡育佑(2006)。運動教練工作價值觀與組織承諾關係之研究,體育學報,39 (2)。
7. 蔡育佑(2006)。運動教練工作價值觀與組織承諾關係之研究,體育學報,39 (2)。
8. 黃英忠、黃培文,(2003)。實習工作價值觀的建構及其與工作投入的關係-以大專觀光、休閒、餐旅相關科系學生為例,觀光研究學報,10 (1),63-79。
9. 黃英忠、黃培文,(2003)。實習工作價值觀的建構及其與工作投入的關係-以大專觀光、休閒、餐旅相關科系學生為例,觀光研究學報,10 (1),63-79。
10. 黃英忠、黃培文,(2003)。實習工作價值觀的建構及其與工作投入的關係-以大專觀光、休閒、餐旅相關科系學生為例,觀光研究學報,10 (1),63-79。
11. 黃國隆(1995)。台灣與大陸企業員工工作價值觀之比較。本土心理學研究,4,92-147。
12. 黃國隆(1995)。台灣與大陸企業員工工作價值觀之比較。本土心理學研究,4,92-147。
13. 黃國隆(1995)。台灣與大陸企業員工工作價值觀之比較。本土心理學研究,4,92-147。
14. 陳淑玲(2002)。影響新人類組織承諾相關影響因素之研究,中華管理學報,3 (1),75-88。
15. 陳淑玲(2002)。影響新人類組織承諾相關影響因素之研究,中華管理學報,3 (1),75-88。