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研究生:塗語禎
研究生(外文):Yu-chen Tu
論文名稱:加註之補償策略:以文化相關網頁之英譯為例
論文名稱(外文):Adding Notes as the Compensatory Strategy: A Case Study of Chinese-English Translations of Cultural Web Texts
指導教授:史宗玲史宗玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-ling Shih
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:口筆譯研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:205
中文關鍵詞:網頁文化文本之翻譯後設論述補償策略關聯理論加註
外文關鍵詞:metarepresentationcompensationrelevance theoryadded notecultural web text translation
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本研究旨在探討將台灣節慶文化網頁翻譯成英文時,以編譯(paraphrase)作為翻譯策略,及以加註(added notes)作為補償策略之功效。在翻譯學研究中,恩斯特奥古斯特‧古特(Ernst-August Gutt, 2000a, 2000b)曾提出關聯理論(relevance theory),而蒙娜‧貝克(Mona Baker, 1992)也建議使用編譯策略,其目的皆是建立共同語境(context)、減少目標語讀者在處理譯文文本時所需消耗之心力(processing effort),以達到最佳關聯效果(optimal relevance)。此外,桑德‧赫维和伊恩‧希金斯(Sandor Hervy & Ian Higgins, 1992)亦提議以文末加註之手法作為補償策略(compensation),此乃是目標語讀者處理譯文文本時所仰賴之後設論述(metarepresentation)(Gutt, 2004)。於此理論架構下,本研究嘗試翻譯台灣節慶文化相關主題之網頁,共有20篇節慶文本,包括傳統節慶、宗教節慶、原住民節慶,並且分析譯文以回答三個研究問題:一、如何編譯文化專有詞彙以達到最佳關聯;二、如何應用註解以補償編譯造成之原語訊息流失;三、目標語讀者對於編譯文化專有詞彙及以註解作為訊息補償之反應為何。
針對編譯文化專有詞彙之問題,研究結果顯示有三種類型之詞彙經常受到編譯,包括專有名詞、慣用語、俚語。此外,針對註解作為補償策略之問題,研究結果顯示四個通則:(1)字數不可過長(否則將降低讀者之閱讀興致);(2)訊息須重要(避免讀者誤會或觸犯禁忌);(3)內容趣味化(有助提升讀者之閱讀興致);(4)詞彙簡單化(避免讀者理解困難)。針對編譯及加註策略對目標語讀者理解是否有所助益之問題,本研究另實施問卷調查。結果顯示,96%之讀者認為編譯使譯文內容易於理解,92%之讀者認為加註可幫助理解譯文。在編譯之三種類型之文化專有詞彙中,讀者認為專有名詞較不需編譯(51%),而慣用語(75%)及俚語(62%)較需編譯以利其理解譯文。在註解之數量及長度上,讀者認為本研究譯文中之註解份量適中,故建議在翻譯網路文化文本時,註解數量每篇以2個為佳,並控制長度在全文之20%。此外,讀者也提供對註解內容之建議供譯者參考。希望藉由本研究之結果,能夠讓譯者在處理網頁文化文本時,能更清楚知道「是否」(if)及「如何」(how)使用加註之補償策略,以達成譯文有效溝通之目的。
This research investigates the effectiveness of the strategy of paraphrase and of the use of added notes as a compensatory strategy in the translations of cultural web texts on Taiwan’s festivals. In the translation studies, Ernst-August Gutt (2000a, 2000b) proposes relevance theory, and Mona Baker (1992) recommends the application of paraphrase, both intending to reduce the target audience’s processing effort in interpreting the target text and achieve optimal relevance through the use of a mutual context shared by the source and the target culture. In addition, Sandor Hervy and Ian Higgins (1992) propose the use of added notes as a compensation strategy to compensate for the information inadequacy through paraphrase. To achieve compensation, added notes serve as metarepresentations to help the target audience infer the translation (Gutt, 2004). The above theories are used as the research framework, and 20 festival web texts are translated, including Taiwan’s traditional Chinese festivals, religious festivals, and aboriginal festivals. These translations are analyzed to answer the three research questions: 1) How can culture-specific items be paraphrased to produce the effect of optimal relevance; 2) How can added notes be used to compensate for information inadequacy resulting from domestication; and 3) How far can the foreign audience accept the paraphrase and added notes in the translations of culture-specific web texts.
Concerning the first research question, it is found that three kinds of culture-specific items are frequently paraphrased, including proper nouns, idioms, and slang. Concerning the second research question, four principles of using added notes are identified, including 1) the medium length (to avoid reducing the target audience’s interest), 2) important information (to avoid misleading the target audience and remind them of taboos), 3) the amusing effect (to boost the target audience’s amusement), and 4) lexical simplification (to avoid the target audience’s misinterpretation). Concerning the third research question, a questionnaire is administered to evaluate the effectiveness of the two strategies. The result shows that 96% of the participants think the translations through paraphrase enhance their understanding, and 92% of the participants think added notes help them understand the translations. Among the three kinds of culture-specific items, the need for the paraphrase of idioms (75%) and slang (62%) is more than that of proper nouns (51%).With regard to the quantity and length of added notes, the participants consider the design of this research appropriate, supporting the addition of 2 notes per text that cover about 20% of the whole text. In addition, some suggestions on the content of added notes are provided by the participants. In short, this research is expected to benefit the future translators when deciding “if” and “how” to use paraphrase and added notes to achieve effective communication in the translations of cultural web texts.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
Acknowledgements v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES x

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Research Motivation 1
1.2 Research Objectives 5
1.3 Research Questions 6
1.4 Research Structure 7

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Relevance Theory in Translation 9
2.2 The Strategy of Paraphrase 15
2.3 The Strategy of Compensation 20

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study Samples 27
3.2 Methods 35
3.3 Questionnaire Participants and Research Procedures 37

CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 The Strategy of Paraphrase 40
4.1.1 Proper Nouns 40
4.1.2 Idioms 48
4.1.3 Slang 49
4.2 The Strategy of Adding Notes 50
4.2.1 The Medium Length 50
4.2.2 The Important Information 51
4.2.3 The Amusing Effect 53
4.2.4 Lexical Simplification 54
4.3 The Audience''s Responses in the Questionnaire 55
4.3.1 Opinions on Paraphrasing Culture-Specific Items 56
4.3.2 Opinions on the Impact of Paraphrase 62
4.3.3 Opinions on Added Notes 68
4.3.4 Responses to the Open Questions 73

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary 76
5.2 Research Significance 79
5.3 Research Limitations and Suggestions 80

REFERENCES 82

APPENDIXES
Appendix 1: English Translations on Chinese and Taiwanese Festivals 87
Appendix 2: The Questionnaire on the Target Audience''s Responses to the Translation Strategies of Paraphrase and Adding Notes 169
Appendix 3: Classification of Paraphrases 174
Appendix 4: Classification of Added Notes 176
Appendix 5: Participants'' Opinions on the Content of Added Notes 189
Appendix 6: Participants'' Opinions on the Evocative Effect of the Cultural Web Texts 191

LIST OF TABLES
3.1 The Internal Structure of Adapted Web Texts and Their English Translations on Chinese and Taiwanese Festivals 28
3.2 Background Information of the Participants Living Outside Taiwan 37
3.3 Background Information of the Participants Living in Taiwan 38
4.1 A Comparison Between the Translations of Gods'' Names Given by the Ministry of Interior (2010) and by the Researcher 45

LIST OF FIGURES
3.1 One Translation Example on the Blog 35
3.2 The Translations on the Blog 36
3.3 The On-line Questionnaire 37
4.1 Preference for the Strategies of Translating Culture-Specific Items 56
4.2 Preference for the Strategies of Translating Proper Nouns 57
4.3 Preference for the Strategies of Translating Idioms 59
4.4 Preference for the Strategies of Translating Slang 60
4.5 Responses to the Effective Communication of the Translations 62
4.6 Responses to the Easy and Clear Understanding of the Translations 63
4.7 Responses to the Foreignness of the Translations 64
4.8 Responses to the Authenticity of the Translations 65
4.9 Responses to the Loss of the Original Style in the Translations 67
4.10 Responses to the Length of Added Notes 68
4.11 Responses to the Number of Added Notes 69
4.12 Responses to the Content of Added Notes 70
4.13 Responses to the Boosting Effect of Added Notes 71
4.14 Responses to the Impact of Added Notes on Reading 72
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