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研究生:李俊賢
研究生(外文):Chun-Hsien Lee
論文名稱:科技大學學生英語學習成敗歸因之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Technological University Students'' Self-Attributions for Success and Failure in English Learning
指導教授:陳其芬陳其芬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Fen Emily Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:應用英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:160
中文關鍵詞:歸因理論學習動機外語學習
外文關鍵詞:Foreign Language LearningAttribution TheoryMotivation
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本研究旨在調查台灣地區科技大學一年級學生的英語學習成敗歸因。研究目的共分為兩大部份:一、了解學生的英語學習信念;二、調查學生的英語學習歸因情形。此外,本研究以三向度歸因理論 (Weiner, 1979, 1983, 1992) 中的部份觀點為架構,檢視學生的整體英語學習歸因特徵,並比較不同性別、主修、父母教育程度、家庭經濟狀況的學生在英語學習歸因上的異同。
本研究採機會抽樣,針對英語系主修學生及非英語系主修學生進行調查。研究工具為李克特氏六點量表問卷,發展自Gobel和Mori在2007年研究中的版本。本次研究共發出3,400份問卷,回收3,134份,有效問卷數為2,412份。資料分析採描述性統計分析、相依樣本T檢定、獨立樣本T檢定以及單因子變異數分析。
研究結果顯示,在英語學習信念方面,科技大學學生普遍認為:(一)「就業」與「升學」的需要程度是影響他們英語學習動機的主要因素。(二) 高中職英語課程較強調單字、文法、閱讀等方面,而科大英語課程較著重聽力、閱讀、單字等方面。(三) 學生認為在英語閱讀方面的學習表現最好,而在英語寫作方面的學習表現最差,並傾向以學校的英語考試成績做為判斷自己英語學習表現的依據。在英語學習成敗歸因方面,學生在成功與失敗時所選擇的歸因因素有所差異,並傾向將成功的英語學習表現歸因於外在因素,而將失敗歸因於內在因素。在成功方面,學生最重視「老師的英語能力」及「對英語成績的重視」等因素的影響;在失敗方面,學生最重視「努力」及「課後與人練習英語」等因素的影響。此外,學生的英語學習歸因方式亦會受到其本身的性別、主修科系、父母教育程度、家庭經濟背景等影響 - (一) 女性比男性有較多成功的英語學習經驗,而男性比女性有較多失敗的英語學習經驗。在成功方面,女性比男性重視「能力」、「努力」、「喜好」、「重視成績」、「興趣」、「動機」,而男性比女性強調「不怕犯錯」、「教學方法」、「運氣」、「課堂氣氛」。在失敗方面,女性比男性重視「不怕犯錯」、「教學方法」、「課堂氣氛」、「教學內容」,而男性比女性強調「喜好」、「重視成績」、「興趣」。(二) 英語系主修學生比非英語系主修學生有較多成功的英語學習經驗,而非英語系主修學生比英語系主修學生有較多失敗的英語學習經驗。在成功方面,英語系主修學生比非英語系主修學生重視「能力」、「重視成績」、「喜好」、「興趣」、「動機」、「學習經驗」,而非英語系主修學生比英語系主修學生強調「教學方法」、「課堂氣氛」、「教學內容」、「老師輔助」、「同儕輔助」、「父母輔助」、「學校設備」、「學校對英語的重視」、「學校提供的課後練習機會」。在失敗方面,英語系主修學生比非英語系主修學生重視「教學方法」、「老師的英語能力」、「課堂氣氛」、「教學內容」、「老師輔助」、「學校設備」、「學校對英語的重視」、「學校提供的課後練習機會」,而非英語系主修學生比英語系主修學生強調「喜好」、「興趣」、「學習經驗」、「動機」、「任務難度」、「父母輔助」。(三) 父母為大學或研究所畢業的學生比父母為國中小或高中職畢業的學生傾向將成功的英語學習經驗歸因於「能力」、「課後與人練習」及「父母的輔助」,而將失敗歸因於「同儕的輔助不大」。(四) 高收入家庭的學生比中低收入家庭的學生更重視「能力」、「喜好」、「重視成績」、「學習經驗」、「課後與人練習」、「任務難度」、「父母的輔助」對成功表現的影響,而低收入家庭的學生比中或高收入家庭的學生強調「喜好」、「學習經驗」、「運氣」、「任務難度」、「教學內容」、「父母的輔助」對失敗表現的影響。最後,筆者就本研究結果提出英語教學及研究方向的建議。
This study investigated Taiwanese technological university first-year students’ self-attributions for success and failure in English learning. The purpose was to explore students’ perceptions in English learning and their attributions for past English learning outcomes. Drawing on parts of Weiner’s (1979, 1983, 1992) three-dimensional framework of attribution, the study not only examined students’ overall English learning attributional features, but it also compared English learning attributional differences between/ among genders, majors, and students with different parents’ educational levels and family income statues.
The study used the opportunistic sampling to survey both English majors and non-English majors. A six-point Likert scale questionnaire developed from Gobel and Mori’s (2007) version was used as the instrument to collect data. Among 3,400 mailed copies of the questionnaire, 3,134 responses were collected, and 2,412 were valid. The statistical analyses, including the descriptive analysis, the paired-samples t-test, the independent-samples t-test, and the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed.
The results of students’ English learning perceptions show that factors (i.e., need to be employed and need to continue studying) were main factors affecting students’ English learning motivation. In addition, students thought that English courses in senior vocational high school focused more on the instruction of vocabulary, grammar, and reading skills, while English courses in college stressed more on the instruction of listening skills, reading skills, and vocabulary. Finally, students perceived that they performed best in reading, but worst in writing. They tended to use school’s test scores as a main source to judge their English learning performances.
The results of students’ English learning attributions show that their attributions for success were not the same as those for failure. Students tended to attribute their English learning success to external factors, while failure to internal ones. Teacher’s English language ability and concern about grades were most endorsed for success, whereas after-class communicative practices and effort were most stressed for failure. Furthermore, significant differences of attributions were found between/ among groups of variables (i.e., gender, major, parents’ educational background, and family income status). First, females had higher ratings on factors of success than males, but males had higher ratings on factors of failure than females. In success, females focused more on ability, effort, likes, concern about grades, interest, and motivation than males, while males stressed more on risk-taking, teaching methods, luck, and classroom atmosphere than females. In failure, females emphasized risk-taking, teaching methods, classroom atmosphere, and input more highly than males, but males endorsed likes, concern about grades, and interest more highly than females. Second, English majors had higher ratings on factors of success than non-English majors, but non-English majors had higher ratings on factors of failure than English majors. In success, English majors endorsed more on ability, concern about grades, likes, interest, motivation, and learning experiences than non-English majors, while non-English majors stressed more on teaching methods, classroom atmosphere, input, teachers’ help, peers’ help, parents’ help, school’s facilities, school’s emphasis on English learning, and school’s offering of after-class communicative practices than English majors. In failure, English majors stressed teaching methods, teacher’s English language ability, classroom atmosphere, input, teachers’ help, school’s facilities, school’s emphasis on English learning, and school’s offering of after-class communicative practices more highly than non-English majors, while non-English majors emphasized likes, concern about grades, interest, learning experiences, motivation, task difficulty, and parents’ help more highly English majors. Third, students whose parents graduated from university or graduate school emphasized more on ability, after-class communicative practices, and parents’ help in success than students whose parents graduated from elementary and high school. Students with university and graduate school parents’ educational levels tended to attribute their English learning failures to peers’ help more strongly than students with primary and high school parents’ educational levels. Fourth, students from high income families tended to ascribe their English learning success to ability, likes, concern about grades, learning experiences, after-class communicative practices, task difficulty, and parents’ help more highly than students from middle and low income families. Students from low income families stressed more on likes, learning experiences, luck, task difficulty, input, and parents’ help in failure than students from middle or high income families. Finally, pedagogical implications as well as limitations and recommendations for future research were provided in the end.
Abstract (Chinese) i
Abstract (English) iv
Acknowledgements viii
Table of Contents x
List of Tables and Figures xiv

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1
Purpose and Scope of the Study 4
Research Questions 5
Definition of the Terms 6
Overview of the Chapters 7

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
Overview 8
Attributional Approaches to Foreign Language Learning
Motivation 10
Definition of Attribution 10
Development of Weiner’s Three-Dimensional Framework
of Attribution 11
Problems of Weiner’s Attribution Theory 14
Methodological Issues in Attribution Research 15
Attributional Approaches and Research in Foreign
Language Learning 18
Sources of Judgment on Foreign Language Learning
Performances 18
Students’ Overall Attributions in Foreign Language
Learning 21
Gender Differences in Foreign Language Learning
Attributions 23
Differences of Learning Experiences in Foreign Language
Learning Attributions 25
Socioeconomic Differences in Foreign Language Learning
Attributions 27
Summary 28

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY
Overview of the Research Design 31
Instrument 32
The Development of the Questionnaire 32
The Content of the Questionnaire 34
Data Collection 39
Respondents 40
Ethical Issues of Research 44
Data Analysis 45

CHAPTER IV RESULTS
Overview 47
Students'' Perceptions in English Learning 48
Research Question 1-1: What Factors do Students Think
Affected Their English Learning Motivation? 48
Research Question 1-2: What Instructional Focuses do
Students Think Were in English Courses? 51
Research Question 1-3: How do Students Perceive and
Judge Their English Learning Performances? 52
Summary 58
Students'' Self-Attributions for Success and Failure in
English Learning 59
Research Question 2-1: What Are Students'' Overall
Attributions for English Learning Successes and
Failures? 59
Research Question 2-2: Are There Any Differences in
English Learning Attributions between Males and
Females? 64
Research Question 2-3: Are There Any Differences in
English Learning Attributions between English Majors
and Non-English Majors? 70
Research Question 2-4: Are There Any Differences in
English Learning Attributions among Students with
Different Parental Educational Backgrounds? 77
Research Question 2-5: Are There Any Differences in
English Learning Attributions among Students with
Different Family-Income Backgrounds? 86
Summary 95

CHAPTER V DISCUSSION & IMPLICATIONS
Overview 98
Students'' English Learning Motivation 98
Instructional Focuses in English Courses 99
Students'' English Learning Performances 99
Sources of Performance Judgment 100
Students'' Overall Attributions 101
Ability, Effort, Practice, and Preparation 102
Strategy 103
Concern about Grades in English 103
Teacher Related Factors 104
School Related Factors 105
Support 106
Gender Differences in English Learning Attributions 107
Differences of Learning Experiences in English Learning
Attributions 108
Differences of English Learning Attributions among
Students with Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds 110
Pedagogical Implications for the EFL Instruction 114
Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research 117
Conclusion 119
References 120
Appendix A: Questionnaire (Chinese Version) 127
Appendix B: Questionnaire (English Translated) 131
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