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研究生:謝欣彣
研究生(外文):Hsin-Wen Hsieh
論文名稱:土阱蟻蛉Cueta sauteri (Esben-Petersen)幼蟲之陷阱構造:學習能力及捕食效率之探討
指導教授:梁世雄梁世雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih-Hsiung Liang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:生物科技系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:土阱蟻蛉幼蟲陷阱構造學習策略獵物捕捉率
外文關鍵詞:Cueta sauteri larvaetrap constructionmemory abilitycapture ability rate
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本研究自2009年6月至7月,以燕巢地區的土阱蟻蛉(Cueta sauteri)幼蟲為材料進行研究。研究主要目的除建立土阱蟻蛉Cueta sauteri幼蟲形質特徵與陷阱結構及利用不同齡期幼蟲陷阱結構之變化,評估土阱蟻蛉幼蟲陷阱構造和捕捉效率之相關性。結果顯示頭寬與體長均能反應陷阱結構變化,但體長較能反應形質特徵。依據三個齡期幼蟲野外陷阱直徑/深度比值的變化,再佐證以野外陷阱直徑/深度比值較大之個體,在實驗室建造陷阱也顯示相同趨勢。隨著土壤深度增加,幼蟲陷阱直徑、斜長及深度等構造特徵均會隨之而增加。各齡期之陷阱結構,在築阱土壤深度超過2 cm後,會出現較穩定的比例結構。隨著土壤深度增加與陷阱構造改變,各齡期幼蟲捕捉獵物成功率也不同。當築阱土壤深度超過2 cm後,以三齡期幼蟲平均成功捕捉率最高,也較不受築阱土深變化影響,而二齡期幼蟲次之,一齡期幼蟲最低。相同築阱土壤深度,不論在較淺之築阱深度 (< 2 cm)及陷阱結構顯現穩定比率 (> 2 cm)後,獵物捕捉率均呈現隨齡期增加而提升之現象,故判斷C. sauteri幼體除具有陷阱構建之學習能力外,也具有記憶及再現的能力。這些具學習策略的差異性的個體,研判將呈現更有效率使用能量及提早羽化的生存和演化優勢。
This study is to assess morphometric characteristics and pit structures of C. sauteri larvae. From June 2009 to July 2009, Cueta sauteri (Esben-Petersen) were collected from Yen-chao. Additionally, structure and catching efficiency of traps of different stages of C. sauteri larvae were assessed and compared. The result of this study showed that both head width and body lengths can properly reflect trap characteristics, but body length is a better indicator than head width. According to trap diameters/depth ratios from the field measurements, antlion with larger trap diameters/depth ratios have more advantage in prey catching. As soil depth increases, pit structures (diameter, depth, slope, degree, and volume) are gradually increased. Over 2 cm soil depths, 3 stages of C. sauteri larvae maintained almost constant ratios in structures, but difference in prey catchability. Among 3 stages of larvae, the third instars displayed higher catchability and adaptability than others among different soil depths. Despite variations in soil depth, prey catching efficiency also increased following instar stages. Therefore, we concluded C. sauteri larvae have learning ability to memorize, regulate and reappear its trap structure. Antlions with this learning ability will display early molting and obtain evolutionary advantage of early reproduction.
壹、前言 1
貳、材料與方法 8
一、物種介紹 8
二、野外調查 8
(一)野外陷阱記錄 8
(二)野外記錄之直徑/深度比與蟻蛉捕捉效率 9
三、實驗室觀察 10
(一)不同土壤深度之陷阱構造 10
(二)不同深度土壤陷阱構造與獵物捕捉 10
四、資料分析 11
(一)頭寬、體長與野外陷阱的構造 11
(二)野外記錄之直徑/深度比與蟻蛉捕捉效率 12
(三)室內實驗土壤深度與陷阱構造 12
(四)陷阱深度與捕食時間 13
參、結果 14
一、野外調查 14
(一)幼蟲頭寬與野外陷阱結構關係 14
(二)幼蟲體長與野外陷阱結構關係 14
(三)野外陷阱直徑/深度比與體長關係 17
(四)野外陷阱直徑/深度比與蟻蛉捕捉效率 21
二、實驗室觀察 22
(一)實驗室築陷阱深度 22
(二)不同深度土壤與捕捉時間 38
肆、討論 47
一、幼蟲頭寬、體長與野外陷阱結構關係 47
二、陷阱直徑/深度度比、體長與捕食效率 47
三、築阱土壤深度 49
四、土壤深度與捕捉時間 51
伍、參考文獻 55


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