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研究生:林冠宏
研究生(外文):Kuan-Hong Lin
論文名稱:系統功能語言學的人際元功能分析演講語篇-以三篇歐巴馬演講為例
論文名稱(外文):An Analysis of Public Speech on the Interpersonal Metafunction of Systemic Functional Linguistics– Three Examples of President Obama’s Speeches
指導教授:謝春美謝春美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Mei Shieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東商業技術學院
系所名稱:應用英語系(所)
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:系統功能語言學演說語篇情態人際元功能
外文關鍵詞:interpersonal metafunctionSystemic Functional Linguisticsthe texts of public speakingmodality
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摘要
在過去,公共演說的語篇分析普遍著重在語音特色,選詞用字,語法及修辭
格的使用上。然而,從系統功能語言學的人際元功能方面來探討演說語篇的研究
並不多。因此,本研究旨在從人稱系統的使用、語氣類型、情態、及人際隱喻等
向度來探討歐巴馬的三篇演說,依序為宣佈角逐美國總統的黨內提名演說,代表
民主黨競選美國總統的勝利演說,及美國總統就職演說。指導此研究的理論架構
及分析技巧是系統功能語言學。系統功能語言學是一門專長於描述探討語言及語
言使用情境即社會語境之間的關係的語言學理論。分析的結果則以描述統計學呈
現出。
五項主要分析結果如下。首先在人稱系統方面,以第一及第三人稱較常出現
於語篇之中。第二,敘述句及祈使句是主要的句型。第三,高值的情態及意態助
動詞較常使用。但是,義務和意願的意態助動詞的使用則少於概率和頻率的情態
助動詞的使用。第四,明確主觀取向的助動詞的使用多於明確客觀取向的助動詞
的使用。最後,在語氣隱喻上,下指令的句型則以敘述句的句型呈現出; 因為藉
由語氣隱喻的方式,聽者會有受到尊重的感覺。
總結而言,此研究從系統功能語言學的人際元功能出發。對分析演講語篇中
人際溝通方面有著不同於以往的探討方式。同時, 有助於對英文閱讀及寫作方面
的教導及學習。
Abstract
In the past, the discourse analysis of the texts of public speaking mostly focused
on phonetic characteristics, vocabulary, grammar, and the figures of speech. However,
the stylistic analysis of texts from the perspective of the interpersonal metafunction of
Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) is scant. Therefore, the aim of this research
attempts to explore the usage of the selection of the person system, mood types,
modality, and interpersonal metaphor of the three public speeches of Barack Obama.
They are Announcement for President, Victory Speech, and Inaugural Speech. The
theoretical framework of analytical techniques of discourse analysis behind this
research is SFL, which is a theory of language to establish the relationship between
language and social life. The descriptive statistics was used to tabulate the analytical
results.
Five principal findings are listed as follows: a) the first person and the third
person are the dominant person system; b) the declarative mood and the imperative
mood are mainly used mood types; c) modulation and modalization with high value
are frequently used; however, the use of modulation for obligation and inclination is
less than that of modalization for probability and usuality; d) the use the explicitly
subjective orientation is more than that of the explicitly objective orientation; e)
metaphor of mood functioning as command is realized by the declarative mood in that
iii
by means of metaphor of mood, the speaker would like to make the listeners feel
respected.
To conclude, this study based on the interpersonal metafunction of SFL is of
difference, compared to what was studied before, in exploring the interpersonal
communication in public speaking genre, as well as in enhancing teaching and
learning English in terms of reading and writing proficiency.
Table of Contents
Abstract(Chinese) ...................................................................................................................i
Abstract.................................................................................................................................ii
Acknowledgements...............................................................................................................iv
Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................v
Tables ..................................................................................................................................vii
Figures............................................................................................................................... viii
CHAPTER 1 ..........................................................................................................................1
Introduction...................................................................................................................1
Background and Motivation ..................................................................................1
Problem Statement .................................................................................................4
Purpose of the Study ..............................................................................................5
Research Questions................................................................................................6
Significance of the Study .......................................................................................7
Definitions of Terms ..............................................................................................7
Organization of the Thesis ...................................................................................10
CHAPTER 2 ........................................................................................................................11
Literature Review.........................................................................................................11
The Genres of Public Speaking............................................................................11
The Nature of Public Speech .......................................................................11
The Features of Public Speech.....................................................................12
An Introduction of Systemic Functional Linguistics ...........................................15
Context.........................................................................................................16
Lexical-grammar..........................................................................................17
Semantics .....................................................................................................18
An Investigation of the Interpersonal Metafunction............................................19
The MOOD Types........................................................................................20
The Modality Structure ................................................................................22
Personal Pronouns........................................................................................23
Interpersonal Metaphors ..............................................................................24
Relevant SFL Studies about the Genre of Public Speaking.................................29
Summary ..............................................................................................................32
CHAPTER 3 ........................................................................................................................33
Method .........................................................................................................................33
Research Design...................................................................................................33
Data Collection ....................................................................................................36
Source of Data..............................................................................................36
A Brief Introduction to the Chosen Texts ....................................................36
Instrument ............................................................................................................38
Data Analysis .......................................................................................................39
Identifying the Basic Units Before Analyzing the Texts..............................39
Analyzing the Person System ......................................................................43
Recognizing the Mood Types ......................................................................43
Distinguishing the Modality System............................................................45
Detecting the Metaphors of Modality ..........................................................46
Assaying the Metaphors of Mood................................................................46
CHAPTER 4 ........................................................................................................................48
Results and Discussion ........................................................................................................48
Result of Research Question 1.............................................................................48
Result of Research Question 2.............................................................................51
Result of Research Question 3.............................................................................55
Result of Research Question 4.............................................................................62
Result of Research Question 5.............................................................................64
CHAPTER 5 ........................................................................................................................66
Conclusion ...........................................................................................................................66
Summary of Major Findings................................................................................66
The Findings of Research Question One .....................................................67
The Findings of Research Question Two.....................................................68
The Findings of Research Question Three...................................................70
The Findings of Research Question Four ....................................................72
The Findings of Research Question Five.....................................................72
Pedagogical Implications .....................................................................................73
Limitations of the Study.......................................................................................75
Suggestions for Future Research .........................................................................76
References...........................................................................................................................78
Appendix A:The Address of “Announcement for President” ..............................................87
Appendix B:The Victory Speech .........................................................................................98
Appendix C:The Inaugural Speech....................................................................................107
Tables
Table 1. Outline of the Most Relevant Studies on the features of Public Speech Texts......14
Table 2. Speech Functions and Commodalities in Exchange ..............................................21
Table 3. Speech Function and Mood of Clause ...................................................................21
Table 4. The Orientations And Types of Modality...............................................................23
Table 5. The Orientations And Types of Modality...............................................................25
Table 6. Speech Function and Mood Clauses ......................................................................27
Table 7. The Metaphorical Realization of the Speech Functions ........................................29
Table 8. Outline of the Most Relevant Studies On the Interpersonal Metafunction of
Public Speech Texts ...............................................................................................31
Table 9. Analytical Keys for Modality, Subject, Metaphors of Modality, and
Metaphors of Mood................................................................................................41
Table 10. The Explanations of Data Analysis ......................................................................42
Table 11. Personal Pronoun Distribution (announcement for President).............................48
Table 12. Personal Pronoun Distribution (victory speech) ..................................................49
Table 13. Personal Pronoun Distribution (inauguration speech) .........................................49
Table 14. Personal Pronoun Distribution (in all of the three speeches)...............................49
Table 15. The Distributions of Mood (announcement for President) ..................................52
Table 16. The Distributions of Mood (victory speech)........................................................52
Table 17. The Distributions of Mood (inauguration speech) ...............................................52
Table 18. The Distributions of Mood (in all of the three speeches).....................................52
Table 19. The Distributions of Modal System (announcement for President).....................56
Table 20. The Distributions of Modal System (victory speech) ..........................................57
Table 21. The Distributions of Modal System (inauguration speech) .................................58
Table 22. The Distributions of Modal System (in all of the three speeches).......................59
Table 23. The Distributions of the Metaphors of Modality (announcement for
President) .............................................................................................................62
Table 24. The Distributions of the Metaphors of Mood ......................................................64
Figures
Figure 1. Context, semantics and lexico-grammar ..............................................................16
Figure 2. The three stages of the research design ................................................................35
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