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研究生:廖貞智
研究生(外文):Chen-chih Liao
論文名稱:中世紀英文傳奇裡薩拉遜人的再詮釋
論文名稱(外文):Rereading the Saracens in Middle English Romances
指導教授:蘇其康蘇其康引用關係
指導教授(外文):Francis K.H. So
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:270
中文關鍵詞:薩拉遜人文學傳統二元典範薩拉遜文化中世紀英文傳奇容忍
外文關鍵詞:toleranceliterary conventionbinary paradigmthe Saracenic culturethe SaracenMiddle English romance
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中世紀英文文學中的薩拉遜人一直以來受到許多學者的關注。早期的研究多著重在薩拉遜人在文學中被扭曲、誇大後的形象,探討薩拉遜人與基督教徒之間的衝突與對立。近二十年來的研究則將薩拉遜人視為國族認同中的陪襯角色,藉由對立與對比,形塑西方的自我認同。這些研究強調薩拉遜人與基督教徒之間的差異與不可相容性,語言、文化、宗教上的不同彰顯了薩拉遜人的邪惡與基督教徒的良善。此二元對立成為中世紀英文文學中重要的主題與典範。本論文企圖探討典範背後隱藏的相關意識型態及重塑中世紀英文傳奇中此對立典範。
中世紀英文傳奇中的薩拉遜人形象多被視為法文文學傳統後的模擬與改寫。英人因為缺乏實際與薩拉遜人的接觸,以及傳奇文類的固定重覆特性,薩拉遜人的形象一直為邪惡、野蠻、形體扭曲的。然而,透過研究多部中世紀英文傳奇文本,可以發現的文類同質性中實存在著變異性。傳奇文本中對薩拉遜人負面敵對的描述雖多,但正面的形象描述,亦並非少數。加上筆者對中世紀神學、社會學、歷史相關資料的探討得知,中世紀英國與薩拉遜人時有接觸與交流,甚至在語言、文化、文學中留下印記,其結果使得傳奇中的薩拉遜人的形象有別於法文文學傳統,呈現出較多樣與正面持平的描寫。
敵對的典範不一定為傳奇作者所堅守,對薩拉遜人的人性描繪,對其文化的好奇,對其智識的崇敬都存在於傳奇的脈絡裡。據此,薩拉遜人的邪惡與基督教徒的良善的二元對立前提獲得修正,並暗示容忍與包容的可能性。

The representations of the Saracen in medieval English romances have attracted a great deal of critical attention. Earlier interest concentrated on the (mis)perceptions of the nature of Islam and the behaviors of its adherents. For the last two decades, analysis of the imagery of the Saracens has been drawn in new directions. The Saracen is treated as “the other,” which functions as everything opposed to Christian and the western world. Consequently, “the other” is often linked to the formation of “the self” in terms of race, culture, religion or nation. Previous studies implicitly or explicitly respond to the binary paradigm proclaimed by Roland in The Song of Roland that the “Pagans are wrong and Christians are right” (1015) and prove the inappeasable enmity between the two peoples. Attached to this presumption are two shared supportive beliefs that make the stereotypical imagery and the binary paradigm sustainable. One is that the nature of romance is homogeneous and is constituted by literary conventions. The other is that medieval England was a world which was isolated from the actual encounter with the Saracens and thereby tended to adhere to the design of a propagandistic stereotype of the Continent (Metlitzki 167). This dissertation will attempt to explore the representation of the Saracens in Middle English romances, and at the same time to reshape the understanding of the binary paradigm as well as the two associated supportive beliefs.
My approaches to studying the representations of the Saracens in Middle English romances are two: one is intratextual and the other is intertextual. The first is to take Middle English romances as a corpus, to investigate its homogeneity as well as its variants in the representations of the Saracens. The second is to draw the strands of theological, sociological and historical references to shed light on the contextual knowledge of Middle English romances in the representations of the Saracens. Chapter one introduces the binary paradigm and the supportive beliefs. Chapter two explores the representations of the Saracens mainly in Floris and Blancheflour and the medieval ideas regarding magic. Chapter three investigates mainly Josian, the Saracen Princess as the embodiment of the Saracenic intellectual culture in Bevis of Hampton and compares her with other Saracen females and Christian counterparts. Chapter four focuses on the representation of the Sultan of Babylon in the eponymous romance The Sultan of Babylon. He is represented as an offender of God on the one hand; on the other hand, he is a worthy conqueror, a competent leader and a kind father. The complex image modifies the rivalry paradigm. Chapter five concludes that alternative Saracen characters are not as rare as might be supposed and antagonism coexists with tolerance and inclusion in medieval English romances.
In Middle English romances, the Saracens are not always evil, wrong and savage. English romancers express their understanding of the Saracens, the curiosity about the Saracenic culture, and give fair appraisals of the Saracens. They reflect “real” encounters with the Saracens, they suggest the ambiguity of literary conventions and they indicate the possibility of toleration and inclusion. They reshape the paradigm proclaimed by Sir Roland, break down the myth of the unity and continuity of Western civilization and mark the particularity of English romances.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter One Introduction 1

Chapter Two Floris in Wonderland 34

Chapter Three The Cultured Barbarian: Josian in Bevis of Hampton 88

Chapter Four The One Who Offends God and Experiences His Vengeance:
The Sultan of Babylon 157

Chapter Five Conclusion 217

Works Cited 240


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