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研究生:黃柏瑞
研究生(外文):Bo-Ruei Huang
論文名稱:以缺鐵蛋白質A (IdiA)之表現探討黑潮與南海海域對束毛藻Trichodesmium spp.可用鐵之供應
論文名稱(外文):Supply of available iron in the Kuroshio and South China Sea as studied by the expressions of iron deficiency induced protein A in Trichodesmium spp.
指導教授:陳宏遠陳宏遠引用關係李玉玲李玉玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Houng-Yung ChenYuh-ling Lee Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:149
中文關鍵詞:疫化學染色法IdiA束毛藻南海黑潮
外文關鍵詞:TrichodesmiumIdiAimmunocytochemistryKuroshioironSCS
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本研究比較緯度相近的北南海及黑潮上游兩貧營養鹽海域中,絲狀無異細胞固氮藍綠藻Trichodesmium細胞之鐵營養狀況。偵測法為利用細胞免疫化學染色法(immunocytochemistry)對Trichodesmium缺鐵時會表現的一種基因idiA(iron deficiency induced protein A)所產生之蛋白質IdiA,利用IdiA抗體做抗體抗原染色後,具IdiA抗原之細胞呈色,可在顯微鏡下辨認、計數其IdiA表現量(被染色細胞數佔總細胞數之比率),以之解明南海與黑潮缺鐵之狀況。調察期間自2008年12月到2010年5月,計4個航次,涵蓋春(CR899、CR1455)、夏(CR910)、冬(CR886)共3個季節。Trichodesmium樣本以採水瓶收集,採樣測站包括南海的陸棚、陸坡、海盆區域及黑潮。樣本採集後檢測其IdiA表現量,並以IdiA表現量與水文環境因子做相關。結果顯示南海中不同測站間IdiA表現量差異很大。在南海,Trichodesmium鐵之供應可能有許多不同來源,包括(1)深水層往上輸送的供應,如南海有內波經過的陸棚測站,及有湧昇發生的陸坡測站,其上表層水中Trichodesmium IdiA表現量均較低;(2)由淡水輸入之供應,如颱風發生後,南海海盆某些測站受淡水輸入陸源物的供應,其IdiA表現量也較低;此等現象可由表水鹽度較低時,Trichodesmium IdiA表現量降低來說明。相對的,其餘不具以上特性的南海海盆測站,IdiA表現量較高,且高於黑潮Trichodesmium IdiA的表現量。這些南海測站海水分層強,可能因此限制了深水層鐵源向上擴散的供應。當此等測站的Trichodesmium添加鐵培養24小時後,Trichodesmium IdiA表現量都明顯較未添加鐵的控制組者低。在黑潮方面,海水分層較南海弱,除數個非典型黑潮水團的測站外,其餘典型黑潮的測站,Trichodesmium IdiA表現量比南海海盆測站低,且黑潮Trichodesmium IdiA表現量與水體分層度呈正相關,顯示由下而上擴散可能是黑潮Trichodesmium鐵的主要來源。對典型黑潮測站的Trichodesmium樣本進行鐵的添加培養,其IdiA表現量並無顯著下降。無論黑潮或南海,IdiA表現量都與大氣落塵量間無顯著相關。顯示大氣落塵的鐵供應,並非造成北南海及黑潮上游Trichodesmium鐵營養狀況差異之主因。相對的,本研究推論由深水往上輸送或陸源水平輸入的鐵源影響較顯著。
This research studied the iron deficient condition of the nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacteria Trichodesmium in neighboring oligotrophic northern South China Sea and upstream Kuroshio. The iron deficiency was detected by the immunocytochemical analysis of the expression of iron deficiency induced protein A (IdiA), a protein translated by Trichodesmium cells under iron deficiency. IdiA expression rate (percentage of cells stained by IdiA antiserum in total cells) was used to represent the iron deficiency status. Trichodesmium samples were collected in four cruises by net-towing or bottle-sampling in the Kuroshio and the shelf, slope and basin of the South China Sea between December 2008 and May 2010, representing three seasons: Spring (CR899 and CR1455), Summer (CR910) and Winter (CR886). The results showed that the IdiA expression rates vaied greatly among the stations in the South China Sea. Iron supplies from various sources decreased the IdiA expressions rates (i.e., less iron deficient). These sources include: (1) Mixing from deep layer, such as in the continental shelf of the South China Sea in which internal wave occured, and upwelling occurred in the continental slope; (2) Mixing at some stations in the South China Sea basin from the input of river dischange, especially in the events after typhoon. During these events, stations with lower surface water salinities usually implied lower IdiA expression rates. In contrast, the basin station that were high in salinities showed high IdiA expression rates, higher than the rates in the Kuroshio. These stations generally had strongly stratified water coulumn, and therefore might limit the ward mixing of deep water. The incubation experiment conducted showed that 24 hours after adding iron, Trichodesmium IdiA expression rates were significantly decreased. The Kuroshio, with its water column stratification weaker than South China Sea, the IdiA expression rates were lower than the basin stations in South China Sea, and positively relatied with the stratification index, indicating that deep advection may be the main source of iron. In the incubation experiments in Kuroshio, the expression rates did not significantly differ with iron or without iron addition. The IdiA expression rates in both regions were not related to flux of atmospheric dust, indicating the input from the dust was not key point to decrease iron deficiency of Tricodesmium in this two region. This study shows that iron deficient condition of diazotrophic Trichodesmium in South China Sea and upstream Kuroshio were related to vertical mixing and horizontal discharge, but not dust flux. This study is first time to apply immunocytochemical analysis on field experiments to explain iron deficiency in the ocean.
中文摘要…………………………………………………I
英文摘要…………………………………………………III
目錄………………………………………………………V
表目錄……………………………………………………VI
圖目錄……………………………………………………VII
彩圖目錄…………………………………………………IX
一.前言……………………………………………………1
二.文獻回顧………………………………………………4
三.材料方法………………………………………………23
四.結果……………………………………………………34
五.討論……………………………………………………55
六.參考文獻………………………………………………67
表…………………………………………………………82
圖…………………………………………………………100
彩圖………………………………………………………127
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