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研究生:許惠嵐
研究生(外文):Hui-Lan Hsu
論文名稱:高屏河海系統土壤及沉積物中脂肪族碳氫化合物之分析研究
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in the Sediments and Soils of Gaoping River-sea System
指導教授:張詠斌
指導教授(外文):Yuan-Pin Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋地質及化學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:脂肪族碳氫化合物高屏河海系統碳優指數陸源有機物質正烷類
外文關鍵詞:Aliphatic HydrocarbonTerrigenous Organic Mattern-AlkanesCPIGaoping River-sea System
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高屏溪為台灣流域面積最大、長度第二的河川,由於此區域降雨量大,加上位於坡度陡峭且颱風及地震頻繁的地帶,因此其流量及輸砂量都相當的高,若與其他的河川相比,高屏溪極高的輸砂量和潮汐主導的沉積物傳輸系統較其他研究區域還更具獨特性。在本研究中,我們收集高屏溪流域上游至下游的土壤及河流沉積物以及位於高屏海域的表層沉積物及沉積物岩心,利用分析其正烷類、有機碳的含量以及分子組成特徵來探討高屏河海系統中陸源有機物質的供應及傳輸歷程、從源到匯的過程中,有機物質所經歷的化學與物理變化以及陸源有機物質在高屏河海系統中的時空分佈模式,並希望能夠進一步討論此區域氣候及沉積環境之變化對於有機物質的傳輸及埋藏會造成何種影響。
結果顯示在高屏河海系統除了土壤的樣品之外,河流沉積物以及高屏海域的表層沉積物在正烷類之組成分佈及階層群集分析(Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA)的結果都與岩石樣品有較高的相似度,其碳優指數(Carbon Preference Index, CPI)均與土壤不同(CPI值>2),呈現出趨近於1的值。而岩心CPI時間序列的結果,也同樣顯示出CPI值趨近於1的特徵,這樣的結果表示,在近150年來,縱使高屏溪的下游區及高屏海域有受到油類污染的情況,但是造成高屏河海系統CPI值趨近於1的主因,並不是來自於石油的汙染,而是由於高屏溪的快速侵蝕所造成(如:颱風、地震),導致其所輸入的有機物受到相對較老的岩石碎屑沉積物稀釋影響,使得高屏溪流域及周遭海域沉積物中的有機化合物與流域四周的土壤相較具有高度降解、成岩作用成熟的特徵。

The Gaoping (GP) river which has the largest drainage basin and is the second longest river in Taiwan. Highly erodible sedimentary and metamorphic rocks in the drainage basin, coupled with a steep landscape, humid climate, frequent typhoons and earthquakes, provide favorable conditions for bedrock weathering and soil erosion in the GP drainage basin. Its exceptionally high sediment yield and tidal-dominated dispersal system presents a unique case for comparative study. In this study, we collected sediment and soil samples not only from estuary region but also traced up to upper stream areas of the GP drainage. We analyze the content of n-alkanes in the sediments and soils of GP river-sea system, and utilize compositional patterns to discuss the sources and process of transmission of terrigenous organic matter of GP river-sea system.
Analyzed results show that the average carbon chain distribution shows same pattern for rocks, riverine and seafloor sediments but is different with soil samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis helps us to distinguish differently compositional patterns of n-alkanes. And the riverine, seafloor and rock samples have high similarity, except for soils. The spatial distribution of the carbon preference index (CPI) and temporal distribution of CPI in cores, show that values are all close to ~1, but not for soils (>2). This result indicates that for the past 150 years, lower CPI values not merely from petroleum pollutions, but also due to thermal mature terrestrial organic matter eroded from bedrock caused by tectonic and climatic events, such as typhoons and earthquakes.
致謝..........................................................................................i
中文摘要.................................................................................ii
英文摘要................................................................................iii
目錄.........................................................................................v
圖目錄..................................................................................viii
表目錄.....................................................................................x
第一章 緒論........................................................................1
1.1 前言.................................................................................1
1.2 研究區域.........................................................................4
 1.2.1 現況概述.................................................................4
 1.2.2 地質分佈及土壤背景...........................................10
 1.2.3 高屏海底峽谷.......................................................13
1.3 文獻回顧......................................................................15
 1.3.1 生物指標...............................................................15
 1.3.2 正烷類...................................................................15
 1.3.3 前人研究...............................................................22
1.4 研究目的......................................................................23
第二章 研究方法.............................................................24
2.1 化學藥品與儀器..........................................................24
 2.1.1 化學藥品...............................................................24
 2.1.2 儀器設備...............................................................24
 2.1.3 器材前處理...........................................................25
2.2 實驗樣品......................................................................25
 2.2.1 採樣時間及地點...................................................25
 2.2.2 樣品前處理...........................................................29
2.3 實驗方法......................................................................29
 2.3.1 超音波萃取...........................................................29
 2.3.2 矽膠管柱層析.......................................................29
 2.3.3 儀器分析...............................................................32
 2.3.4 資料分析...............................................................33
2.4 品保與品管..................................................................35
2.5 總有機碳分析..............................................................36
2.6 階層群集分析..............................................................36
第三章 結果.....................................................................37
3.1 脂肪族碳氫化合物......................................................37
 3.1.1 正烷類碳數分佈...................................................37
 3.1.2 正烷類含量分佈...................................................43
 3.1.3 輕重烴比...............................................................47
 3.1.4 Pristane/Phytane................................................51
 3.1.5 碳優指數...............................................................54
3.2 總有機碳......................................................................57
第四章 討論.....................................................................61
4.1 高屏河海系統正烷類含量分佈特性..........................61
4.2 高屏海域之陸源有機物質來源..................................70
4.3 高屏海域正烷類之時間序列特徵..............................76
第五章 結論.....................................................................81
參考文獻.............................................................................82
附錄 A..................................................................................94
附錄 B...............................................................................104
附錄 C...............................................................................115
附錄 D...............................................................................118
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